Aquilaria microcarpa Baill., Adansonia 11: 304 (1875)

Species name meaning 'small fruit'.

Aquilaria borneensis (Tiegh.) Gilg
Aquilariella borneensis Tiegh.
Aquilariella microcarpa (Baill.) Tiegh.

Tree up to 40 m by 80 cm. Bark grey, superficially fissured; branchlets light brown, puberulous, glabrescent. Leaves subcoriaceous. shining and glabrous above, rather dull, glabrous or sometimes scattered hairy beneath, elliptic-oblong to obovate-oblong or oblanceolate, 4.5-10 by 1.5-4.5 cm; base cuneate to attenuate; apex acute to acuminate, the acumen up to 1 cm; nerves 12-19 pairs, sometimes branched, slightly curved and ascending to the thickened margin, prominent beneath, visible above; veins and veinlets rather irregular, subparallel, distinct beneath, obscure above; petiole 3-5 mm, pubescent. Inflorescences axillary or supra-axillary, terminal, or on short lateral branchlets, usually branched, rarely simple, peduncle short or up to 1 cm, 6-11-flowered. Flowers white, light-yellow or yellow. 5 mm long; pedicels c. 5 mm, puberulous. Floral tube puberulous outside, sparsely puberulous inside. Calyx lobes ovate or oblong, obtuse, densely puberulous on both surfaces. Petaloid appendages almost as long as the stamens or sometimes slightly longer, ovate or oblong, densely hairy. Stamens 1-1.5 mm, alternately long and short; anther c. 0.5 mm, usually shorter than the filament, rarely as long or longer. Pistil ovoid, 1.5-2 mm long. Ovary densely pubescent; style obscure or rarely very short; stigma capitate. Fruits subcordate, slightly compressed, 8-12(-16) by 10-12(-15) mm, l-(2-)seeded; persistent floral tube sometimes splitting on one side. Seed ovoid, 6 by 4 mm, densely brownish pubescent; caruncle-like appendage 2 mm long. [from Flora Malesiana]

Lowland forests up to 200 m elevation.


Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo.

Local names
Borneo: engkaras, karas or sigi-sigi.
Bugis: kumbil, garu, tulang.
Sumatra: tengkaras, liepang.