Schima wallichii (DC) Korth., in Temminck, Verh. Nat. Gesch. Bot. 3 (1840)

Named after N. Wallich [1786-1854], a Danish botanist.

Cleyera mertensiana Sieb. & Zucc.
Gordonia brevifolia Hook.f.
Gordonia chilaunea Buch.-Ham.
Gordonia floribunda Wall.
Gordonia integerrima Teijsm. & Binn.
Gordonia integrifolia Roxb.
Gordonia javanica Hook.f.
Gordonia lobii Hook.f.
Gordonia mollis Wall.
Gordonia oblata Roxb.
Gordonia sinensis Hemsl. & Wils.
Gordonia superba (Gard. & Champ.) Hook.f. & Thomson ex Dyer
Gordonia wallichii DC
Schima antherisosa Korth.
Schima argentea Pritz.
Schima bambusifolia Hu
Schima bancana Miq.
Schima beccarii Warb.
Schima boninensis Melch.
Schima boninensis Nakai
Schima brevipes Craib
Schima confertiflora Merr.
Schima crenata Korth.
Schima forrestii Airy Shaw
Schima hypoglauca Miq.
Schima hypochra Pierre
Schima javanica (Hook.f.) Szysz.
Schima kankaoensis Hayata
Schima khasiana Dyer
Schima liukiuensis Nakai
Schima lobii (Hook.f.) Pierre
Schima mairei Hochr.
Schima mertensiana (Sieb. & Zucc.) Koidzumi
Schima mollis Dyer
Schima monticola Kurz
Schima noronhae Reinw.
Schima noronhae var. boninensis Hayata
Schima oblata (Roxb.) Kurz
Schima pulgarensis Elmer
Schima rigida Miq.
Schima sericea Airy Shaw
Schima sinensis (Hemsl. & Wils.) Airy Shaw
Schima sulcinervia Miq.
Schima superba Gard. & Champ.
Schima villosa Hu

An evergreen, medium-sized to large tree growing to 47 m in height; bole cylindrical, branchless for up to 25 m, diameter up to 125 (max. 250) cm, with a steep buttresses rarely up to 1.8 m high; bark surface ruggedly cracked into small, thick, angular pieces, red-brown to dark grey; inner bark with skin-irritating fibres, bright red in colour. Leaves spiral, oblong to broadly elliptic, 6-13 x 3-5 cm; base wedge shaped; apex acute to acuminate; margin toothed; secondary veins 6-8 pairs; petioles about 3 mm long. Flowers solitary in axils at the apices of twigs, with 2 bracteoles, pentamerous; sepals subequal, persistent in fruit; petals connate at base, white, with a rosy flush; stamens many, adnate to the corolla base; anthers versatile; ovary superior, 5-locular with 2-6 ovules in each cell; style simple. Fruit a woody subglobose capsule, 2-3 cm in diameter, silky, opening by 5 valves; seeds winged all around. [From]

A common tree that can grow in a wide range of climates, habitats and soils. Its light requirements are moderate. It often occurs gregariously in primary lowland to montane forest, but is particularly common in disturbed and secondary forests, scrub and grassland and even in areas inundated with brackish water. Also found in keranga's on sandy soils. Up to 2400 (max. 3900) m, Mean annual temperature: 0-5 to 37-45 deg. C, Mean annual rainfall: 1400-5000 mm. Soil type: S. wallichii can grow in a wide range of soils. It usually prefers well-drained soils but has been observed in swamps and along rivers, and is not choosy about soil texture or fertility. Trees may flower and fruit after 4 years. Flowering and fruiting occur throughout the year, but flowers are usually more abundant around the periods when seasons change. In India trees bear flowers in April-June, and the 1st fruits are observed from May to July. The seeds are shed in next January to March of the following year. In Indonesia, fruiting is reported to be most abundant in August to November. Seeds are light and are dispersed by wind.

Fodder: In Nepal, the leaves are used for fodder. Fuel: S. wallichii produces good firewood. The energy value of the sapwood is about 19980 kJ/kg. Fibre: Wood is suitable for paper pulp. Timber: S. wallichii yields a medium-weight to heavy hardwood with a density of 450-920 kg/cubic cm at 15% mc. Heartwood is pink-brown, red-brown or grey-brown, but is sometimes dark red-brown; it is not clearly differentiated from the pale grey sapwood; grain is straight or interlocked, frequently irregular; texture moderately fine or fine and even. Shrinkage is moderate to very high, and the timber seasons fairly rapidly; in Malaysia, boards 13 mm and 38 mm thick were observed to take about 2.5 months and 3 months, respectively, to air-dry. The wood is moderately durable and hard and is fairly strong. It is easy to work with hand and machine tools and polishes satisfactorily. Wood is relatively resistant to dry-wood termites. Used for medium-heavy construction that is under cover, such as columns and beams, for flooring, interior fitting, panelling, door and window frames, joinery, utility furniture, ship and boat building (ribs, decks), vehicle bodies, agricultural implements, pallets, boxes and crates, poles, toys, turnery and, when treated, for railway sleepers. It has been used for bridge building in mountain areas, and young trees have been used as rafters. Good-quality plywood can be manufactured from the wood, and it is suitable for the production of wood-wool boards. Tannin or dyestuff: Bark is used for dyeing and its tannin is used in processing skins. Leaves also contain tannin but not in quantity enough for economic use in tanning. Lipids: Seed of S. wallichii from India contains 19% oil. Poison: The bark contains an alkaloid used as a fish poison. Medicine: The astringent corollas are used to treat uterine disorders and hysteria. The crude drug is called buah cangkok in Indonesia, and ¡®changkoh¡¯ in peninsular Malaysia. Erosion control: In the northeastern regions of India, planting cardamon and S. wallichii are some of the ideal agroforestry systems for conserving soil and water. Shade or shelter: In India, S. wallichii has been used as a shade tree in coffee plantations. Reclamation: S. wallichii is useful for reforestation and in water conservation in catchment areas. Intercropping: In Indonesia, S. wallichii has been used as a cover crop in plantations of Pinus merkusii and Agathis dammara.

From the Himalayas, southern China and southern Japan to Java, Borneo and the Philippines.

Local names
Bengali: cheloni, makrisal, mukria sal.
Borneo: Legai, Medang helalang, Penagit, Puspa.
Burmese: laukya.
English: needlewood, schima.
Hindi: chilauni, kanak, makusal.
Indonesian: madang gatal, puspa, seru.
Lao: khai sou, mi, boun nak.
Malay: gatal-gatal, kelinchi padi, medang gatal, samak.
Nepali: aule-chilaune, chilaune, goe-chassi, sule-chilauni.
Thai: bunnak, champa dong, thalo.
Vietnamese: v[oos]i thu[oos]c.