Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb., Mon. Myrist. (1897)

Latin for the local name of this species.

Horsfieldia acuminata Merr.
Horsfieldia amklaal Kaneh.
Horsfieldia congestiflora A.C.Sm.
Horsfieldia labillardieri Warb.
Horsfieldia lemanniana (A.DC.) Warb.
Horsfieldia nunu Kaneh.
Horsfieldia subglobosa (Miq.) Warb.
Myristica globularia var. subglobosa (Miq.) Miq.
Myristica irya Gaertn.
Myristica irya var. ceylanica King
Myristica irya var. javanica King
Myristica irya var. longifolia King
Myristica irya var. malayana King
Myristica irya var. moluccana King
Myristica irya var. siamensis King
Myristica irya var. wallichii King
Myristica javanica Blume
Myristica labillardieri (Warb.) Boerl.
Myristica lemanniana A.DC.
Myristica micrantha Wall.
Myristica spherocarpa Wall.
Myristica subglobosa Miq.
Myristica vrieseana Miq.

Upper canopy tree up to 47 m tall and 112 cm dbh. Stem with red sap. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, simple, penni-veined, glabrous to sparsely hairy. Flowers ca. 2 mm diameter, yellow-cream, placed in panicles. Fruits ca. 17 mm diameter, yellow-orange, glabrous, dehiscent capsules. Seeds with undivided red aril.

Tree 10-25(-47) m tall. Twigs towards apex often drying flattened, usually thinly ridged, (2-)3-10 mm diameter, glabrescent, indumentum minute to conspicuous (New Guinea and Pacific Islands), grey to rusty, dendroid hairs of mixed size, 0.1-0.5(-1) mm long; bark (coarsely) striate, +/- blackish, not flaking; lenticels conspicuous. Leaves often +/- curved towards the apex, membranous, elliptic-oblong to lanceolate, 10-30(-35) by 3-7(-9) cm, base rounded to attenuate, apex acute-acuminate; upper surface drying dull, greenish to blackish, almost always with irregular whitish marks of unknown origin, lower surface early glabrescent; dots absent; midrib flattish above; nerves 10-20 pairs, thin and flattish above, lines of interarching usually indistinct; venation lax, faint above, thin though distinct beneath; petiole 7-16 by 1.5-3(-4) mm; leaf bud 10(-15) by 2-3 mm, with hairs 0.1-0.5(-1) mm. Inflorescences with dense hairs 0.1-0.5(-1) mm long, persistent or glabrescent; in male: 3 or 4 times branched, many-flowered, 4-18 by 3-7 (-10) cm; in female: 2-6(-8) cm long, 2 (or 3) times branched; peduncle 0.5-4.5 cm long; bracts +/- acute, 1.5-4 mm long (sometimes larger, leaf-like), caducous; flowers in male in clusters of 3-10, in female fewer; perianth 2-lobed, glabrous, at base glabrescent; pedicel pubescent or glabrescent, not articulated. Male flowers: pedicel slender, 0.1-1.5 mm; buds subglobose or +/- transversely ellipsoid, somewhat laterally compressed or not, 1-1.5 by 1-1.5 mm (largest in Indochina), apical part broadly rounded, base rounded or short-tapering, cleft 1/2-2/3, lobes 0.2 mm thick; androecium +/- broadly obovoid, 0.8-1.2 by 1-1.5 mm; thecae 12-18(-20, Indochina), not closely touching, 0.5-0.8(-1) mm long, free apical part 0.2-0.3 mm, incurved, column and androphore broadly concave, more or less saucer- or cup-shaped, 0.4-0.5 by (0.5-)0.6-1 mm, tapered towards the base. Femaleflowers: pedicel 1-4 mm long; buds obovoid or ellipsoid, 1.5-2.3 by 1.3-2 mm, cleft 1/4-1/3; ovary broadly obovoid, glabrous, 1.2-1.5 by 1-1.3 mm, stigma minute, 0.1 mm. Fruits 2-8 per infructescence, globose, 1.5-2.2 cm diameter, glabrous, finely granular, without tubercles or lenticels, drying dark brown to blackish; pericarp 1-2 mm thick; seeds globose; fruiting pedicel 5-10 mm long; perianth not persistent. [from Flora Malesiana]

In undisturbed to slightly disturbed (open) coastal, swamp and mixed dipterocarp forests up to 450 m altitude. Usually on periodically inundated sites, sometimes within tidal zone along rivers or streams, or swamps. On sandy to clayey soils. Seeds contain an air chamber for dispersal by water.

The wood is locally used for timber and as bottle lid. Fruits are edible, but rarely eaten.

From Sri Lanka, Burma and Indo-China to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

Local names
Borneo: Darah-darah, Kumpang, Piasau mamau, Salinguat.