Ficus hispida L., Suppl. Pl. (1782)

Latin for 'covered with long stiff hairs'.

Covellia assamica Miq.
Covellia courtallensis Miq.
Covellia daemonum (J.Konig ex Vahl) Miq.
Covellia dasycarpa Miq.
Covellia hispida (L.) Miq.
Covellia oppositifolia (Roxb.) Gasp.
Covellia setulosa Miq.
Covellia wightiana Miq.
Ficus caudiculata Trimen
Ficus compressa S.S.Chang
Ficus courtallensis (Miq.) Baill.
Ficus daemonum J.Konig ex Vahl
Ficus fecunda Blume
Ficus goolereea Roxb.
Ficus heterostyla Merr.
Ficus hispida var. badiostrigosa Corner
Ficus hispida forma borneensis Miq.
Ficus hispida var. incana Kuntze
Ficus hispida var. obovifolia Hochr.
Ficus hispida var. viridis Kuntze
Ficus hispidioides S.Moore
Ficus letacqui H.Lev. & Vaniot
Ficus lima Royen ex Miq. [Invalid]
Ficus mollis Willd.
Ficus oppositifolia Roxb.
Ficus perinteregam Pennant
Ficus poilanei Gagnep.
Ficus prominens Wall. ex Miq.
Ficus sambucixylon H.Lev. & Vaniot
Ficus scabra Jacq. [Illegitimate]
Ficus setistyla Warb.
Ficus simphytifolia Lam.
Ficus symphytifolia Spreng.
Gonusuke daemonum (J.Konig ex Vahl) Raf.
Gonusuke hispida (L.) Raf.
Gonusuke scabra (Jacq.) Raf.
Perin-teregam Rheede
Sycomorphe roxburghii Miq.

Understorey tree up to 17 m tall and 25 cm dbh. Stem with white sap. Stipules ca. 18 mm long, hairy. Leaves alternate, simple, penni-to tripli-veined, hairy below, sand-paper like to the touch, margin toothed. Fruits ca. 16 mm diameter, yellow-brown, fleshy figs placed on long inflorescences which hang down from the main trunk or branches.

An evergreen, small tree up to 17 m tall, bark smooth, grey; leaves often decussate, asymmetrical, pentagonal to oblong, 10-35 cm x 4-20 cm, base subcordate to broadly cuneate, apex acuminate, margin crenulate, with 5-10 pairs of veins and prominent reticulation below, hispid, stipules 1-2.5 cm long; figs on long twigs hanging from the trunk and main branches, obovoid, 25-40 mm in diameter, densely brown pubescent, pale or greenish-yellow when ripe; male flowers in 1-2 rows, with 1 stamen, female flowers sessile or stipitate. [from PROSEA]

In disturbed (open) mixed dipterocarp, regrowth, seasonal and swamp forests up to 1200 m altitude. In alluvial sites and along rivers and streams. In Australia the fruit are eaten by Cassowaries and Double-eyed Fig Parrots.

The immature fruits are considered tonic, galactagogue and emetic. The latex of the leaves is taken internally to treat fever, diarrhoea and to relieve painful urination; the latex of the bark is regarded as an emetic. An extract of the bark is used in the treatment of jaundice, leprosy and anaemia. Boiled leaves are used to poultice boils and ulceration of the nose. The fruits are also eaten in curries, but are, however, likely to cause giddiness. Ripe fruits are made into a jam. The bark yields a rough fibre. The leaves may be used as fodder for cattle. Large cuttings have been used to establish live fences. To stop menstrual hemorrhage, Marma (Bangladesh) give root juice along with rice-soaked water. Fruits are used by the tribal of Khagrachari (Bangladesh)to reduce blood pressure.

Sri Lanka, India, southern China to Australia.

Local names
Borneo: Ara.
Bengali: Kakdumur, Khoksha-dumur, Dumur, Dhungri, Thoska.
English: Rough-leaved stem fig.
India: Chona-atthi (Tamil), Pei-atthi (Tamils), Erumanakku (Malayalam), Kattatthi(Malayalam), Parakam (Malayalam), Thonditherakam (Malayalam), Pavakom (Malayalam), Paeyathi (Malayalam), Perimteragam (Malayalam), Peyattiparaka (Malayalam), Valliteragam (Malayalam), Kad-atthi (Kannada), Paare mara (Kannada).
Indonesia: bisoro (Sundanese), luwing (Javanese), mongmong (Sumatra).
Laos: dua pong.
Malaysia: ara bumbing, ara sinigai, ara seniah (Peninsular).
Thailand: duea plong (northern, central, peninsular), duea pong (Bangkok), maduea plong (central).
Vietnam: ng[as]i.