Litsea monopetala (Roxb.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 4 4 (1807)

Latin for 'single petal'.

Litsea polyantha Juss.
Tetranthera alnoides Miq.
Tetranthera monopetala Roxb.

Evergreen trees up to 18 m tall, ca. 15 cm d.b.h. Branchlets densely ferruginous pubescent. Leaves alternate; petiole 1-3 cm, densely hairy like branchlets; leaf blade broadly ovate or obovate to ovate-oblong, 8-20 กม 4-12 cm, densely ferruginous pubescent abaxially, along midrib ferruginous pubescent adaxially when young, pinninerved, lateral veins 8-12 pairs, base rounded or acute, apex obtuse or rounded, rarely acute. Umbels clustered on shortest branchlets, 4-6-flowered or more; peduncle 4-6 mm. Male flowers: pedicel 6-7 mm, ferruginous pubescent; perianth segments 5 or 6, yellow-white, lanceolate; fertile stamens 9; filaments pubescent, of 3rd whorls each with 2 stipitate glands at base. Fruit long ovoid, ca. 7 กม 5 mm, seated on shallowly discoid perianth tube; fruiting pedicel ca. 1 cm. [From Flora of China]

Thickets or sparse forests on sunny slopes; below 1500 m, but mostly found on hills at low elevations. The fruits of L. monopetala are thought to be dispersed by bats.

The wood (Medang) is used for furniture, planks and tool handles. The seed core contains ca. 30% oil and is used for industrial oil. The leaves are used as a topical medicine for the treatment of arthritis. The bark of this species is mildly astringent and powdered bark and roots are used externally against bruises and pains. Leaves are used for growing muga silkworm and as cattle fodder.

From Pakistan, India, Nepal and Southern China into Indochina and Peninsular Malaysia, Java and the Philippines. The species is introduced and sometimes invasive on Pacific and Indian Ocean islands.

Local names
Burma: Ondon laukya.
China: Jia shi mu jiang zi.
Indonesia: Huru manuk (Sundanese, Java).
Malaysia: Bangang (Peninsular).
Nepal: Kutmiro.
Pakistan: Ghian.
Thailand: Kathang (peninsular).