Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehd., J. Arn. Arb. 1 (1919)

Latin for 'Sunda', the region where this species occurs.

Castanea latifolia Blume
Cyclobalanopsis muricata (Roxb.) Oerst
Cyclobalanus lamponga (Miq.) Oerst
Lithocarpus lamponga (Miq.) Rehd.
Lithocarpus pruinosa (Blume) Rehd.
Pasania grandifrons (King ex Hook.f.) Gamble
Pasania korthalsii (Blume) Oerst
Pasania lamponga (Miq.) Gamble
Pasania pruinosa (Blume) Oerst
Pasania sundaica (Blume) Oerst
Quercus grandifrons King ex Hook.f.
Quercus hystrix var. mappacea (Korth.) Merr.
Quercus korthalsii Blume
Quercus korthalsii var. kajan Blume
Quercus korthalsii var. mappacea (Korth.) Blume
Quercus korthalsii var. pachyphylla Blume
Quercus lamponga Miq.
Quercus mappacea Korth.
Quercus muricata Roxb.
Quercus pruinosa Blume
Quercus pruinosa var. alpina Jungh.
Quercus pseudomoluccana var. korthalssi (Blume) Weinzig
Quercus pseudomoluccana var. pruinosa (Blume) Weinzig
Quercus pseudomoluccana var. sundaica (Blume) Weinzig
Quercus sundaica Blume
Synaedrys grandifrons (King ex Hook.f.) Koidz
Synaedrys lamponga (Miq.) Koidz
Synaedrys pruinosa (Blume) Koidz
Synaedrys sundaica (Blume) Koidz

Upper-canopy tree up to 45 m tall and 90 cm dbh. Stipules ca. 8 mm long. Leaves alternate, simple, penni-veined, glabrous to hairy below. Flowers ca. 3 mm diameter, green-yellow, placed racemes. Fruits ca. 17 mm diameter, greenish, nut with basal cupule.

Tree up to 36(-45) m tall, 90 cm diameter. Bark smooth or fissured, greyish brown; inner bark yellowish. Sapwood yellowish. Twigs densely appressed tomentose with stellate and simple hairs, smooth or sometimes sparsely minute-lenticellate. Stipules linear, c. 4 x 1 mm. Leaves coriaceous, densely or sparsely stellate-hairy (sometimes mixed with simple hairs) above, densely appressed greyish tomentose with simple and stellate hairs below; elliptic to oblong, (10-)12-16(-24) x (4-)5-6(-10) cm, base obtuse, rarely acute, margin revolute, apex acute to acuminate, acumen 5-20 mm long; midrib strongly raised on both surfaces; lateral veins thick, (10-)12-14(-16) pairs, lax, slightly raised above, strongly raised below, faintly to clearly joining near the leaf margin, forming an angle of 40- 60 degrees with the midrib; intercostal venation scalariform, lax, obscure above, prominent or obscure below; petiole 5-12 mm long. Inflorescences male, androgynous or mixed. Male inflorescences 5-15 cm long; bracts ovate, c. 1 x 0.7 mm. Male flowers solitary along the rachis; perianth lobes obtuse, c. 1 x 1 mm; stamen filaments c. 2.5 mm long; pistillode globose, c. 1 mm diameter. Androgynous or mixed inflorescences 9-12 cm long; bracts and bracteoles broadly ovate, 0.8-1 x 0.6-0.8 mm. Female flowers solitary along the rachis; perianth lobes acute, c. 0.5 x 0.3 mm; staminodes 10; styles conical, straight, c. 1 mm long. Cupules solitary along the rachis, sessile or with stalk 5-10 mm long, saucer-shaped, 0.3-0.7 x 1.4-2.5 cm, densely tomentose with simple hairs, scaly; wall woody, thin, enclosing less than half of the acorn; scale-like appendages distinct, appressed, set in regular lines. Acorns depressed ovoid, 1.3-2 x 1.6-2 cm, most part exserted, glabrous except for a small part at the apex which is densely tomentose with stellate and simple hairs, purplish brown; base rounded, apex acute; scar concave or flat, 1-1.5 cm diameter; wall woody, thick, most part free from the cupule. [from Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak]

In undisturbed and secondary mixed dipterocarp to sub-montane forests up to 2600 m altitude. Both on alluvial sites and along rivers as on hillsides and ridges. Found on clay soils and near limestone. Also in kerangas.

The bark has been used occasionally in Indonesia (Java) for tanning hides into leather. Although Sunda oak was already being recommended some 70 years ago as a good source of tanning material, it has never been used extensively. The timber is sometimes used in house-building for beams, columns and planks, and occasionally also for furniture and tool handles.

Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines.

Local names
Borneo: Brangan pili, Empenit, Empili, Mempening, Mengkikir, Salud birar.
English: Sunda oak.
Indonesia: pasang batu, pasang parengpeng (Sundanese), pasang balung (Javanese).
Malaysia: mempening bagan, mempening merah (Peninsular).
Thailand: ko lap taopuun (Trang).