Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll.Arg., Linnaea 34: 196 (1865)

Named after the 'Philippines', one of the places where the species can be found.

Aconceveibum trinerve Miq.
Croton coccineus Vahl [Illegitimate]
Croton distans Wall. [Invalid]
Croton laurifolius Noronha [Invalid]
Croton montanus Willd.
Croton philippensis Lam.
Croton punctatus Retz. [Illegitimate]
Echinus philippensis (Lam.) Baill.
Euonymus hypoleucus H.Lév.
Macaranga stricta (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.
Mallotus bicarpellatus T.Kuros.
Mallotus philippensis var. reticulatus (Dunn) F.P.Metcalf
Mallotus philippensis var. tomentosus Gamble
Mallotus philippinensis var. reticulatus (Dunn) F.P. Metcalf
Mallotus reticulatus Dunn
Mappa stricta Rchb.f. & Zoll.
Rottlera affinis Hassk.
Rottlera aurantiaca Hook. & Arn.
Rottlera philippensis (Lam.) Scheff.
Rottlera tinctoria Roxb.
Rottlera tinctoria var. monstruosa Ham. ex Dillwyn
Tanarius strictus (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Kuntze

Trees up to ca. 27 m tall and 50 cm dbh, reproductive from 5 m tall and 2 cm dbh. Twigs solid, densely hairy (short orange-brown simple, tufted and stellate hairs). Stipules triangular, semi-persistent, erect, ca. 0.5 mm long by 0.5 mm wide. Petioles densely hairy, up to ca. 9 cm long. Leaves alternate, ovate to elliptic, 11-17 cm long by 3-10 cm wide, length/width-ratio 1.93-3.67; secondary veins 6-9, not ending in the margin (looping to fading); leaf base rounded (to obtuse); leaf margin without glands; leaf upper surface glabrous, with 2 basal nectary glands directly next to petiole insertion; leaf lower surface densely hairy, glaucous, numerously gland dotted. Staminate inflorescences not branched; flowers clustered per bracteole; bracteoles with entire margins. Pistillate inflorescences not branched; fruits 7-10 mm wide, 3-locular, bright red coloured, without spines.

Locally common in understorey of primary to secondary forests, scrub, mostly found on disturbed sites; on ridges, forest edges, road and river sides, steep slopes, marshy and savannah areas; in wet (riverine, swampy) to well-drained terrains; on a large variety of soil types, like granite, limestone, sandstone, sandy clay, sandy loam soil, volcanic rock, gravel, quartz, shale, and rock. Also cultivated (Hawaii and Miami, USA). Altitude: sea level up to 1600 m.

From Pakistan to South China and South Japan, throughout Southeast Asia and Malesia to East Australia and West Pacific (Solomon Islands).

Ornamental (red fruits). The wood is used for rafters, tool handles, matchboxes, and house-posts. The fruits and bark are used as an antihelminthic, to relieve constipation, and against cutaneous affections. The fruits and leaves are used against colds and to cure stings and bites of snakes and other poisonous animals. The leaves are used as a fodder. The glands of the fruits are used as a red dye. The roots are used for dissolving coagulated blood and contusions. The oil of the seeds is used as a substitute for tung oil (Vernicia Lour., Euphorbiaceae) in the formulation of rapid-drying paints, varnishes, hair fixers and ointments.

Local Names
Borneo: Sabah: Ayagkun (Bajau Tuaran); Asin asin, Mata kunau (Dusun), Bai bai (Dusun Tampoluri); Magundasing (Murut Tenom); Balinasi (Kwijau).
Java: Kangke djuan (Madurese); Kaju tike, Kapasan, Kemesoe, Palan, Papasan, Tal tidang, Talaman, Tapčn, Tekeg-tekegan.
Lesser Sunda Islands: Hotel ewi (Bunag); Biofluke, Bnafo (Dawan); Hadju puser, Kaika, Kajoe tapis, Poeser, Pudjar, Pure, Puser.
Malay Peninsula: Min-ya-ma-ya, Mue-ra-kae-pu-te; Balikangin, Mingak madia, Kasiran.
Moluccas: Galoega foeroe (Ternate), Intiboro.
New Guinea: Papua (former Irian Jaya): Kikindam (Kotte); Maile (Kulumo); Poiro (Matapaili), Nakokupote (Minu); Ugo (Musa, Safia); Gamete (Naukwate, Onjob); Matsiuna (Roro); Iruda, Mamada, Nakunmenia.
Papua New Guinea: Damon (Andjai), Rah (Gab Gab); Dammoen, Dammonnie, Domoni (Ke-bar); Sies (Manikiong); Andeh, Haha, Sebijreraka, Nokloe.
Philippines: Dalunis (Ibanág); Banáto (Ibanág, Igorot, Tagálog); Anangkuli, Buas.
Sulawesi: Paedje-paedje.
Sumatra: Kajoe poetat, Madang mansiro, Masiho, Moacho, Toeba sira, Tumbasira.