Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Mull.Arg., Linnaea 34 (1865)

Latin for 'paniculate or branched', referring to the inflorescence.

Croton appendiculatus Elmer
Croton paniculatus Lam.
Echinus trisulcus Lour.
Lasipania tricuspis Raf.
Mallotus albus (Roxb.) Mull.Arg.
Mallotus chinensis Müll. Arg.
Mallotus conchinchinensis Lour.
Mappa conchinchinensis Spreng.
Rottlera alba Roxb.
Rottlera paniculata (Lam.) Blume
Trewia tricuspidata Willd.

Shrub up to 10(-15) m tall and 24 cm dbh. Stipules ca. 1 mm long. Leaves alternate, simple, tripli-veined, hairy below, with two conspicuous nectary glands at upper leaf base. Flowers ca. 4 mm diameter, white-yellowish, placed in panicles. Fruits ca. 7 mm diameter, green-yellow-brownish, 3-lobed, few spined, dehiscent capsules, seeds with black arils.

Shrubs to small trees up to 15 m high, dbh up to 24 cm, dioecious, rarely monoecious. Bole up to 4 m high; crown up to 4 m long; bark with much tannic acid, outer bark rough to finely fissured or pustular lenticellate, reddish brown with yellowish brown lenticels, up to 10 mm thick; inner bark and wood white. Indumentum tomentose to puberulent. Stipules triangular, 0.8-1.5 by 0.4-0.7 mm, caducous, margin entire, apex acute. Leaves alternate to apically subopposite; petiole 30-180 by 0.4-0.7 mm, greenish tawny; blade subpeltate for 1.5 mm, broadly ovate to ovate, 4-23.5 by 3-15 cm, length/width ratio 1.2-2, reddish brown when young, base rounded to cuneate, margin entire to (irregularly) dentate, sometimes 2-lobed at widest part of blade, never hastate, longest lobes up to 30 mm, upper surface dull dark green, basally with 0-2 extrafloral nectaries, 1.8-5 by 1-2.5 mm, yellowish green, marginal nectaries 0-11 per side, 2-4 mm from margin, 0.7-0.8 by 0.7-0.8 mm, lower surface light brownish grey to coppery, domatia absent, 3-nerved, nerves 6-8 per side, looping or ending in the margin. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, unisexual to rarely bisexual, axes greenish tawny, basally 2-4 mm thick; bracts triangular to narrowly triangular, 1.9-2.2 by 0.3-0.4 mm, bracteoles 0.4-1 by 0.3-0.5 mm, persistent, margin entire. Staminate inflorescences up to 45 cm long, side branches up to 28 cm long, with 3-7 flowers per node, nodes per branch up to 70, hairy. Staminate flowers 3-5 mm diam.; pedicels 3-4 mm long; sepals 3 or 4, elliptic, reflexed, 2.2-3 by 1.2-1.8 mm, pale yellow; stamens 40-65, filaments 1.5-2 mm long, white, anthers 0.2-0.3 by 0.1-0.2 mm, orange-yellow; pistillode present. Pistillate inflorescences panicles, occasionally racemes, up to 30 cm long, nodes up to 75 (per branch). Pistillate flowers 3-4 mm diam.; pedicels up to 1 mm long; calyx 3-5-lobed, connate on the base, 2-2.6 mm long, cream brown, lobes ovate, 1.5-2.2 by 0.7-1 mm; ovary 3-locular, 1.3-1.5 by 1.7-2 mm, cream brown, spines individually visible; style up to 1 mm long, yellow; stigmas 1.2-2 mm long, yellow; staminodes absent. Fruits 5-12 by 6-14 mm, greenish tawny, spines few, straight to curved, thick, hairy, up to 7 mm long, hairs not forming a continuous layer, not rubbing off; column 3-3.3 by 2-2.2 mm. Seeds globose, 2.5-3 by 2.5-3 by 2-2.5 mm, smooth, black, shiny; hilum c. 1 by c. 1 mm. [from Flora Malesiana]

Locally common in deciduous and evergreen forest, mostly in open, often very disturbed or burned places, in ravines and on dry sites like plateaus, ridges and slopes, in thickets, and along rivers and roadsides; on a large variety of soil types, like basalt, clay, granite, laterite, limestone, loam, rocky, sandy, ultrabasic, and volcanic. Altitude: sea level up to 1800 m.

The roots are boiled and drunk after child birth. The bark is used for construction, making strings, and it is used by the Loi (in China) to make a coarse cloth from which men¡¯s jackets were made. The leaves are used against fever. The indumentum of the young leaves is applied on the penis after circumcision. The wood is used for paper pulp, wallboard, light construction, and as firewood.

From India, South China and Taiwan to New Guinea and northeastern Australia.

Local names
Borneo: Balik angin, Bayur, Berlekut, Entupak, Waringkanin laki.
Indonesia (Kalimantan): Butaq (Tunjung Benua); Bayur, Keminting boeroeng, Waring kangin laki.
Java: Tjalik angin (Sundanese), Ki tjoelih angin perak, Ki-manggong, Ki-talikangin, Walung.
Malaya Peninsula: Balek angin, Balek angin kechil (Semelai); Buerakaeputeh (Malay); Balek (Sakai); Balik angina, Musapal itam, Poko balek angina.
Papua (Irian Jaya): Kanibor (Kutubu); Lengle (Miwaute); Gayanbangemba (Waskuk); Bangiam, Kolamalama.
Papua New Guinea: Poekwa (Hattam).
Philippines: Hinlaumong-puti (Bis¨¢ya); Anapl¨¢n (Buk¨ªdnon); Lamai.
Sabah: Balabakan (Bandukam, Bajau); Parak balik (Dusun Kwijau); Dauh (Dusun Putatan); Entupak (Iban); Sirindien (Land Dayak); Balek angin.
Sarawak: Dagoh (Dusun); Berlekut (Kelabit); Sirindienjamis (Land Dayak); Balek angin (Malay); Balikangina.
Sulawesi: Kajukuo (Uma), Kapilah.
Sumatra: Balik angin (Alas); Saringkut (Karo); Bali-bali angina, Balik angina, Balik-balik Angin silai, Boedi, Kajoe lappisi, Kajoe si balik angina, Kajoe si djoekkat, Kajoe si tarak balanggingngan, Lilouw.