Macaranga trichocarpa (Reichb.f. & Zoll.) Mull.Arg., in DC. Prodr. 15, 2 (1866)

Latin for 'hairy fruits'.

Macaranga borneensis Müll.Arg.
Macaranga helferi Müll.Arg.
Macaranga minutiflora Mull.Arg.
Macaranga trichocarpa var. trilobulata Gagnep.
Mappa trichocarpa Reichb.f. & Zoll.
Mappa zollingeriana Miq.
Tanarius borneensis (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze
Tanarius helferi (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze
Tanarius minutiflorus (Müll.Arg.) Kuntze
Tanarius trichocarpus (Zoll.) Kuntze

Shrub up to 7 m tall and 6 cm dbh. Twigs solid and hairy. Stipules ca. 5 mm long, dropped early. Leaves alternate, simple, tripli-veined, hairy (sandpaper like) on upper and lower surface, with two basal nectary glands on upper surface. Flowers ca. 0.5 mm diameter, green-yellowish, plaved in bundles within fimbriate bracts which are part of short racemes or panicles. Fruits ca. 10 mm diameter, green-silvery, 2-lobed, dehiscent, spiny capsules covered with irritating hairs.

Bushy trees, to 6 m, with sprawling limbs (sarmentose). Bark smooth, orange brown, latex clear turning red. Twigs solid, slender, 3 mm diam., terete, smooth, finely pubescent. Stipules elliptic, 5 mm, papery, pubescent, erect, very soon caducous. Leaves: petioles 4-5 cm, slender, terete, finely pubescent, sometimes weakly kneed at top; blades rhombic-ovate, very occasionally with 2 lateral cusps or small lobes, 7-14(-17) by 4-10(-15) cm, thinly leathery, base truncate to very broadly rounded, often under 1 mm peltate, occasionally with inconspicuous glands on nerves near petiole insertion, margin with small glandular teeth, apex acute or acuminate, drying khaki below and often dark brown above, below granular glandular and velvety with short spreading white hairs on all nerves including the raised reticulum, with 3 main and several minor nerves at petiole insertion, surface above with white hairs (caducous except on nerves) arising from small persistent pustules. Inflorescences diffuse narrow racemes to 6 cm; branches sparse to 15 mm; peduncle short, 1 cm; axes slender, main axis terete, finely pubescent, lower branches alternate; bracts elliptic, 5 mm, dentate, leaf-like, pubescent, with pinnate nervation, sometimes stalked, soon caducous; flower clusters in groups, smaller than bracteoles, overlapping, branches developing through flower clusters (as M. tanarius); bracteoles persistent, ovate, strongly concave, to 4 by 2mm, apex acute, pectinate, pubescent on both sides, nerved. Staminate flowers c. 14 per cluster, maturing in sequence; pedicel 0.5 mm, tomentose; sepals united, elliptic, tomentose; stamens 2, strongly exserted, 0.5 mm long, anthers 4-locular. Pistillate flowers similar [to staminate?], ovary bilobed. Fruits round (or bilobed), 4 mm diam., woody, golden granular glandular, with close short spines bearing conspicuous glassy irritant hairs; pedicel 3 mm, pubescent; calyx small, persistent. Seeds round, 2 mm, very finely verrucose, with sarcotesta. [from Flora Malesiana]

Usually gregarious in severely disturbed mixed dipterocarp forests, but sometimes also found in the understorey, up to 600 m altitude. Locally common in scrub, along roadsides and forest edges, mostly on hillsides and ridges.

India, Burma, Indo-China, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo.