Shorea pinanga Scheff., Nat. Tijd. N.I. 31 (1870)

Latin version of the Malay plant name 'Pinang'.

Shorea compressa Burck
Shorea gysbertsiana var. scabra Burck

Upper canopy tree up to 45 m tall and 103 cm dbh. Stem with resin. Stipules ca. 60 mm long. Leaves alternate, simple, penni-veined, glabrous. Flowers ca. 29 mm in diameter, yellow-pink, placed in panicles. Fruits ca. 25 mm long, green-yellow-red, with three ca. 195 mm long wings, wind dispersed.

Medium-sized or large tree. Young twig, panicle, leaf bud, stipule and petiole shortly densely fugaceously to persistently gold-brown pubescent; sparsely so on leaf beneath. Twig 4-6 by 2-3 mm apically, compressed, becoming smooth; stipule scars to 3 mm long, to 1.5 mm thick at base, strongly falcate, descending. Bud to 10 by 4 mm, hastate, subacute, usually hidden by stipules. Stipule to 6 by 1.5 cm, glabrescent, hastate, subacute, somewhat persistent. Leaves 11-24 by 4-9 cm, elliptic to narrowly ovate, +/- thinly coriaceous, with broadly cuneate to subcordate base and to 1.5 cm long deltoid acumen; nerves 10-20 pairs, slender, curved, at 50-70 but to 90 at base; tertiary nerves densely scalariform, diagonal to nerves; midrib prominent and terete beneath, +/- applanate and narrow above; petiole 1.5-2.3 cm long, slender. Panicle to 24 cm long, terminal or axillary, lax, compressed; singly branched, the branchlets long, bearing to 15 distichous flowers; bracts to 15 by 7 mm, lanceolate, acute, glabrous to pubescent, fugaceous; bracteoles to 10 by 8 mm, broadly ovate, acute, glabrous to pubescent, subpersistent. Flower bud to 10 by 3 mm, linear, subacute. Calyx glabrous or pubescent outside; lobes subequal, linear, subacute. Petals deep pink, hardly contorted, long, linear-lanceolate, sparsely pubescent on parts exposed in bud. Stamens 15, the innermost 5 slightly the longest; filaments broad, united in a ring round the ovary, tapering abruptly distally; appendage to connective many times length of anther, reaching to style apex. Ovary subglobose, surmounted by a long narrow style and stylopodium about twice its length, the latter 2 distended in the distal half; entirely glabrous. Fruit calyx glabrescent; 3 longer lobes to 28 by 3.5 cm, coriaceous, narrowly spatulate, narrowly obtuse, to 2.3 cm broad above the to 1.5 by 2.5 cm broadly ovate saccate thickened base; 2 shorter lobes to 17 by 1.2 cm, subequal, linear, similar at base. Nut to 2.3 cm long and broad, broadly ovoid, shortly evenly pale yellowish buff pubescent; style remnant to 2 mm long, slender, acute. [from Flora Malesiana]

In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp forests up to 1300 m altitude. Mostly on ridges with clay to sandy soils.

The timber is used.


Local names
Borneo: Awang boi, Awang burong, Awang kalalai, Awang labuan, Awang lanying, Awang litung, Engkabong bukit, Kakan merah, Kawang pinang, Kikawan, Langgai, Meranti langgai bukit, Tengkawang, Tengkawang amung, tengkawang bunga, Tengkawang gunong, Tengkawang karajing, Tengkawang lumut, Tengkawang minggi, Tengkawang ondjing, tengkawang reput, Tengkawang sambai, Tengkawang telaga, Tengkawang telur, Tengkawang umba.