Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps, Useful Pl. Dominica 277 (1998)

Species name meaning 'from the Indies'.

Kleinia quadricolor Crantz
Mekistus sinensis Lour. ex Gomes Mach.
Quis qualis Rumph.
Quisqualis ebracteata P.Beauv.
Quisqualis glabra Burm.f.
Quisqualis grandiflora Miq.
Quisqualis indica L. Quisqualis indica var. oxypetala Kurz
Quisqualis indica var. villosa C.B.Clarke
Quisqualis longiflora C.Presl. Quisqualis loureiroi G.Don.
Quisqualis madagascariensis Bojer [invalid]
Quisqualis obovata Schumach. & Thonn.
Quisqualis pubescens Burm.f.
Quisqualis sinensis Lindl.
Quisqualis spinosa Blanco
Quisqualis villosa Roxb.

Climber without stipules and opposite (sometimes in whorls of three) leaves in one plane. Inflorescence terminally or axillary, with white flowers that slowly turn reddish. Flowers with long corolla tubes. Fruits with five wings along the length of the fruit.

Climber. Young branchlets tomentose, villous, pilose, appressed-pubescent or sparsely pubescent, rarely sparsely glandular. Leaves opposite or subopposite (sometimes partly alternate, spiral or whorled), papyraceous, elliptic or elliptic-oblong, varying from tomentose to nearly glabrous, with domatia sometimes present, minutely verruculose on the upper surface, 5-18.5 by 2.5-9 cm, acuminate or sometimes subcaudate at the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base; nerves 5-6 pairs; petiole varying from tomentose to nearly glabrous, 0.5-2 cm; petiolar thorns sometimes up to l.5 cm. Spikes terminal and axillary, 2-10 cm long, sometimes forming a leafy panicle. Bracts lanceolate- acuminate or elliptic, 6-10 by 2-3 mm. Flowers pleasantly scented. Lower receptacle sericeous, 3-4 mm long; upper receptacle narrowly tubular, slightly expanded at the apex, outside varying from tomentose to nearly glabrous. Calyx-lobes deltoid or shortly triangular, 1-2 mm long, tips acute but scarcely filiform. Petals oblong, white, 6-8 mm, finally turning dark red, 10-20 by 3-6 mm, somewhat rounded and very shortly unguiculate at the base, imbricate in bud, sparsely pubescent. Filaments 7-7.5 mm long, longer ones attached c. 1.5 mm lower in the receptacle-tube than the shorter ones. Style adnate to the inner wall of the upper receptacle, upper part free for 15 mm. Ovules 3-4. Fruit dark-brown, ovate-elliptic in outline, usually appressed-pubescent, 2.5-4 by 0.75-1.25 cm with 5 rather stiff wings. [from Flora Malesiana]

A large climber along margins of primary forest, along river-banks, in thickets and in secondary forest; from sea-level to c. 100(-300) m. Specimens maintain themselves by root-suckers and stooling.

The fruits and seeds are well-known throughout Malesia as an anthelmintic, particularly to treat ascarids. In large doses they cause nausea, vomiting, hiccough and even unconsciousness. In Indonesia, a decoction of the root, seed or fruit is used as a vermifuge. In the Philippines, it is used as a bechic or pectoral, the fruits and seeds to alleviate nephritis, and the seeds as anthelmintic. In Peninsular Malaysia, a decoction of the seeds is given to children to stop diarrhoea, the juice of the leaves is considered a remedy for boils and ulcers and the leaves are applied to the head to relieve ache caused by jungle fever. In Papua New Guinea, plants are eaten daily by men and women as a method of birth control. In Vietnam, the root is used to treat rheumatism and a concentrated decoction of the fruit is used as a gargle effective against toothache. In China, seeds macerated in oil are applied to parasitic skin diseases, boils or sores on children's faces, and when roasted are given to treat diarrhoea and fever. In Mongolia, the seeds and fruit are reported to sustain the spleen and cause obstructions to disappear. Much grown as an ornamental climber in tropical gardens.

Probably native to the Asian tropics and occurring throughout the Malesian region. Nowadays widely cultivated, mainly as an ornamental hedge plant, throughout the tropics. There is still doubt whether it is indigenous to east tropical Africa or was introduced there long ago.

Local names
Buginese: Tikao.
Cambodia: dong preah phnom, vor romiet nhi.
English: Burma creeper, Chinese honeysuckle, Rangoon creeper.
Java: Katekluk katekluk, Tjeguk, Tjekluk.
Kangean: Saradengan.
Laos: dok ung, khua hung, 'sa mang'.
Madura: Kunji rabet, Rabet besi, Rabet dani.
Moluccas: Ara dani, Akar dani, Akar suloh, Dani, Redani, Selimpas, Udani, Urdani, Wudani.
Peninsular Malaysia: Akar puntianak.
Philippines: Niog-Niogan (Tagalog); Balitadham, Pinion, Pinones (Bis.); Bonor (P. Bis.); Kasunbal, Tanglon, Tangulo (Bik.); Agulo, Tangolo, Totoraok, Tagarau (Tag.); Talolong (Tag. Jlk.); Tatulong (Ibn); Taungon (Mbo), Tartaraok, Tartarau (Ilk.).
Thailand: cha mang (northern), thai-mong (Karen-Mae Hong Son), lep mue naang (central, peninsular).
Sumatra: Bidani.
Vietnam: d[aa]y giun, qu[ar] giun, s[uwr] qu[aa]n.