Agathis borneensis Warb., Monsunia i. 184 (1900)

(Latin for 'from Borneo')

Abies dammara (Lamb.) Desn.
Agathis alba Foxw.
Agathis beccarii Warb.
Agathis beckingii Meijer Drees
Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Richard
Agathis dammara subspecies dammara Whitm.
Agathis endertii Meijer Drees
Agathis latifolia Meijer Drees
Agathis loranthifolia Salisb.
Agathis macrostachys Warb.
Agathis rhomboidalis Warb.
Dammara loranthifolia (Salisb.) Link
Dammara orientalis Lamb.
Dammara orientalis var. orientalis Carr.
Pinus dammara Lamb.

Can grow very large and with conspicuous stem, deeply fissured or dimpled to scaly, with pieces flaking. Stem producing golden clear resin when cut (damar). Usually growing on sandy soils where it can become dominant. No stipules. Leaves opposite with venation running along the length of the leaves. Can be differentiated from Nageia by the rounded apical twig bud (pointed in Nageia). It produces cones.

Huge trees to 55 m tall and 3.5 m diameter. Stem produces clear golden resin after damage (damar). Mature trees follow the usual Agathis model of a long (20-30 m) clear bole with a broad emergent crown of large rigid first-order branches. Bark variable: grey, light brown, to black, finely dimpled to thinly scaly or rough, exfoliating thus with few epiphytes. Leaves sub-opposite, thick, coriaceous, light green, highly variable even on a single tree. Juvenile leaves ovate-lanceolate, up to 14 by 4 cm. Adult leaves ovate with a more or less acute apex, 6-12 cm by 20-35 mm, tapering at the base to a c. 5 mm petiole. The most common foliage leaf c. 7 by 3 cm but branches with relatively long and narrow leaves often interspersed with the more usual type and more general on younger trees. Resin ducts in pairs one above the other between most vascular strands rather than the prevailing solitary duct elsewhere in the genus. Mature pollen cones oblong, 4-7 cm by 20-25 mm, rounded at the apex, subtended by a 2-10 mm peduncle, the apex of the microsporophyll spoonshaped, 5.5-6.5 by 4-5 mm, the apex a broad semicircle. Mature seed cones oval, 6-8.5 by 5.5-6.5 cm. Seed bract roughly triangular but well rounded at the upper corners, a low thick ridge along the apical margin, a strongly hooked 6 mm scallop on one side of the base, the other side with no more than a kink, 26-28 by 36-40 mm. Seed c. 12 by 9 mm, blunt at one upper corner and a broadly rounded wing c. 20 by 16 mm at the other corner. [from Flora Malesiana]

Usually on poor sandy to peaty soils in closed forests where it can sometimes become the dominant canopy component. Growing up to 1200 m elevation. Wind pollinated and dispersed.

Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia.

The timber is used.

Local names
Borneo: Bamboeng, Bulu, Kayu buloh, Nuju, Pilan, Salang, Toga.
Brunei: Bindang, Tolong.
English: Borneo kauri, Malayan kauri.
Indonesia: Bangalan, Bembueng, Bengalan, Damar pilau, Damar sigi, Enghatan (Sanggan), Hedje, Kayu sigi, Ki dammar, Manggilam, Pisau, Putut.
Malaysia: Damar daging, Damar minyak, Mengilan, Tambunan, Tulong.