Hydnocarpus castanea Hook.f. & Thomson, Fl. Brit. India 1: 197 1872

Latin for 'chestnut', referring to the fruit.


Tree up to 30 m tall, 60 cm diameter. Rather smooth whitish-grey to brown bark. Mostly glabrous but stipules rusty hairy. Flowers white, in few flowered cymes, fragrant. Fruit large, globose, up to 6,5 cm diameter, rusty hairy.

Glabrous tree, 15-20(-30) m, up to 60 cm diameter; bark pale whitish grey or brownish, smooth; branches stout, angular, smooth, glabrous. Leaves elliptic-oblong or oblong, gradually attenuate and rather abruptly acuminate, +/- rounded at the base, slightly inequilateral, coriaceous, entire, +/- shining, red-brown when dry, (13-)17-30(-35) by (5-)6.5-8(-12) cm; nerves 6-7(-8) pairs, curved-ascending, prominent specially beneath, veins +/- densely reticulate, little raised above, more distinct so beneath; petiole stout, thickened at both ends, 1.5-2 cm. Stipules linear-oblong, rusty-tomentose, 4 mm, very early caducous, leaving pale scars. Flowers white, sweet-scented, male Flowers: cymes few-flowered, 2-3 mm peduncled or the flowers essentially in fascicles, rusty-pubescent all over. Sepals obovate, 6-7 by 4-5 mm, greyish-tomentulose inside. Petals narrow-oblong, 8-11 by 3 mm, glabrous; scales linear, 7 by 1.5 mm, pilose at the apex. Filaments subulate, glabrous, 2.5 mm; anthers oblong-cordate, 2.5 mm. Rudiment of the ovary rufous-tomentose. Female Flowers: pedicels 1.5-2.5 cm. Sepals and petals similar to those of male flowers, but 8-11 by 5, resp. 12-15 by 3-4 mm; scale 11 mm. Filaments subulate, thick, 2 mm, without anthers. Ovary ovoid, contracted into a conical beak, yellowish-tomentose. Fruit globose or depressed-globose, (4-)5-6.5 cm diam., minutely rugose, rather scurfy, first fulvous-velvety, glabrescent. Seeds c. 20-30, densely packed and variously angled, 2.5-3.3 by 1.8-2.5 cm. [from Flora Malesiana]

Dense forests, swampy ground, often along small streams, up to 1200 m elevation, also on limestone cliff bases.

The whitihs wood is used.

Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia into Sumatra.

Local names
Malaysia: Alai batu, Tengkurak lang, Tembikar periyok (Kedah), Genggulak (Perak). Thailand: Kula.