Aquilaria beccariana van Tiegh, Ann. Sc. Nat. Bot. 7, 17 (1893)

Named after O. Beccari [1843-1920], an Italian botanist.

Aquilaria cumingiana var. parviflora Airy Shaw
Aquilaria grandifolia Domke
Gyrinopsis grandifolia (Domke) Quis.

Tree up to 28 m tall and 91 cm diam. with grey and smooth bark. Young branchlets pubescent. Leaves papery to subcoriaceous, glabrous on both surfaces, sometimes scattered pubescent beneath, oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic-oblong, rarely elliptic, (7-)11-27 by (3-)6-8.5 cm; base cuneate to attenuate; apex acute to acuminate; nerves (10-)15-25 pairs, curving and ascending towards the margin, elevated and prominent beneath, distinct above; veins loosely reticulate; petiole 5-7 mm. Inflorescences axillary or extraaxillary, branched and up to 1.5 cm peduncled, short-paniculiform, pubescent; pedicels 3-7 mm, pubescent. Flowers 7-12 mm long, yellowish, greenish or yellowish-white. Floral tube cylindric, 10-costate, sparsely hairy outside. Calyx lobes slightly ovate, puberulous inside, 2-3 mm long, densely puberulous on both surfaces, sometimes glabrescent on the outside. Petaloid appendages oblong, c. 1 mm long, densely short-hairy. Stamens usually sessile, rarely with very short filaments, almost as long as the petaloid appendages. Disk ring-like to cupular, densely puberulous. Pistil c. 5 mm long, with a distinct stipe c. 2 mm long, the stipe accrescent and elongated. Ovary ellipsoid, attenuate to the base, gradually narrowed at the apex; stigma capitate. Fruit protruding from the top of the floral tube, ellipsoid or obovoid, 2-3.5 by 1.75 cm, slightly puberulous and glabrescent, narrowed to the base into an elongate stipe up to 1.5 cm, acuminate to the apex, usually slightly contracted in the middle; floral tube entire, very rarely splitting on one side. Seeds black, ovoid, 10 by 5 mm, sparsely puberulous, acuminate to the apex, with an elongate tail c. 5 mm long, attached at the center of the appendage, the appendage slender, c. 1 cm long, densely reddish-brown pubescent. [from Flora Malesiana]

In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp, keranga and sub-montane forests up to 1000 m altitude. Often along rivers and streams and on ridges. On sandy to clay soils.

The fungi infected wood is used to produce a valuable incense (gaharu). The fungi-infected heartwood, characteristic of all members of the genus, has high commercial value for making incense, perfume and traditional medicine. Numerous trees are cut down, many uninfected, to harvest just a few kilograms of the diseased wood. The increase in levels of trade over the past decade has resulted in overexploitation throughout its range.

Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo.

Local names
Borneo: Aru, Engkaras, Engkeras, Enkaran, Gaharu, Karas, Kekaras, Mebuaan.
Indonesia: garu tanduk (Kalimantan), mengkaras putih (Sumatra).
Malaysia: gaharu, gumbil, njabak.