Antidesma montanum Blume, Bijdr. 1124 (1827)

Latin for 'from the mountains'.

Synonyms
Antidesma acuminatum Wight
Antidesma agusanense Elmer
Antidesma angustifolium (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
?Antidesma aruanum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
Antidesma barbatum Presl
Antidesma bicolor Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
Antidesma discolor Airy Shaw
Antidesma diversifolium Miq.
?Antidesma erythrocarpum Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma henryi Hemsl. in Forbes & Hemsl.
Antidesma henryi Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
Antidesma kerrii Craib
Antidesma leptocladum Tul.
Antidesma leptocladum var. genuinum Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma leptocladum var. glabrum Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma leptocladum var. nitidum (Tul.) Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma leptocladum var. schmutzii Airy Shaw
Antidesma lobbianum (Tul.) Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma martabanicum Presl
Antidesma menasu (Tul.) Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma menasu (Tul.) Mll.Arg. var. liniiifolium Hook.f.
Antidesma microphyllum Hemsl. in Forbes & Hemsl.
Antidesma mindanaense Merr.
Antidesma montanum var. microcarpum Airy Shaw
Antidesma moritzii (Tul.) Mll.Arg.
Antidesma mucronatum Boerl. & Koord. in Koord.-Schum.
Antidesma nitidum Tul.
Antidesma obliquinervium Merr.
Antidesma oblongifolium Blume
Antidesma oblongifolium Boerl. & Koord. in Koord.-Schum.
Antidesma oblongifolium var. genuinum Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma oblongifolium var. wallichii Tul.
Antidesma palawanense Merr.
Antidesma palembanicum Miq.
Antidesma paxii F. P. Metcalf
Antidesma pentandrum (Blanco) Merr.
Antidesma pentandrum var. angustifolium Merr.
Antidesma pentandrum var. barbatum (C.Presl) Merr.
Antidesma pentandrum var. genuinum (Mll.Arg.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
Antidesma pentandrum var. lobbianum (Tul.) Merr.
Antidesma pentandrum var. ramosii (Merr.) Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
Antidesma phanerophlebium Merr.
Antidesma pseudomicrophyllum Croizat
Antidesma pseudomontanum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
Antidesma pubescens auct. non Roxb.
Antidesma pubescens var. menasu Tul.
Antidesma pubescens var. moritzii Tul.
Antidesma ramosii Merr.
Antidesma refractum Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma rostratum Tul.
Antidesma rostratum var. barbatum (C.Presl) Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma rostratum var. genuinum Mll.Arg. in DC.
Antidesma rostratum var. lobbianum Tul.
Antidesma salicifolium Presl
Antidesma salicinum Ridl.
Antidesma salicinum var. latius Ridl.
Antidesma seguinii H. Lv.
Antidesma simile Mll.Arg.
Antidesma teysmannianum Pax & K.Hoffm. in Engl.
Antidesma wattii Hook.f.
Cansjera pentandra Blanco

Description
Trees about 10 m tall. Bark thin flaky in old trees. Branchlets terete, pubescent. Leaves simple, alternate, distichous; stipules in pairs, linear-lanceolate, acute, 1.2 cm long, pubescent, subpersistent; petiole 0.25-0.7 (-1.2) cm long, terete sometimes subcanaliculate, pubescent; lamina 8-22 x 2.5-7.7 cm, usually oblong to elliptic or oblanceolate, apex gradually acuminate with mucronate tip, base acute to rounded or cuneate, margin entire, chartaceous, glabrous except on midrib; secondary nerves prominent beneath, 5-9 pairs, ascending; tertiary nerves broadly reticulate. Inflorescence axillary or terminal racemes; flowers unisexual, dioecious; clusters of flowers in male more distant than in female. Fruit a drupe, elliptic, somewhat oblique, turning red; seed 1.

Ecology
Common understorey trees in disturbed evergreen forests up to 2000 m. In primary and secondary evergreen to deciduous vegetation, mixed dipterocarp forest, riparian and littoral forest, coastal forest, beaches, monsoon forest, teak-forest, Agathis forest, bamboo groves, peat swamp forest, heath forest, thickets, grasslands, roadsides, around towns and villages (Malay: 'belukar'), also mossy montane forest, usually in understorey, from deep shade to total exposure, on dry to wet or seasonally flooded ground. Common in most places, with extremely high ecological amplitude. On sand, clay, loam, peat, volcanic and ultrabasic soil, over limestone, sandstone or granite.

Distribution
From India (Western Ghats) to Southern China and Japan, Indochina, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and New Guinea to Australia.

Uses
Often cultivated for its edible fruits. Wood used in house construction, for rice pestles and fire wood. Leaves applied to ulcers and lumber pains, roots applied for stomachache, the fruits or tea from the leaves as tonic after childbirth (Philippines, labels of PNH 37987, 38059, 38372, Zwickey 699). The fruits are eaten locally. They are also used to adulterate black pepper. The Malay name Madang lada refers to the yellowish wood similar to Madang = Litsea (Lauraceae) and to the fruits (lada = pepper), thus meaning Litsea with pepper fruits.

Local names
Borneo: Sabah: Antatanud (Murut Bokan), Apid-apid timba, Bengu (Dusun), Bilin sagit (Dusun), Dampirut (Sungai), Gagarit (Murut Tenom), Gibih (Dusun), Hunron (Orang Sungai), Ipo-ipo (Dusun), Lulunib (Murut Bu.), Manggis tara rata (Dusun), Menempuru (Dusun), Mentegiras (Dusun), Pachar ambok (Malay), Ranting paya (Banjar), Sinpaladuk (Sungei), Tanduripis (Dusun), Tanggirangir (Kwijau), Tendurusuh (Dusun), Tenggilang (Dubu), Totopis (Dusun); Sarawak: Bruin (Iban), Madang lada (Malay), Kalimantan: Cabi cabi, Kosaumpo.
China: Shan di wu yue cha. Java: Honi pasir, Ki jebak (Sundanese), Ki seueur or Seueur bener sud (Sundanese, seueur = many, refers to the many edible fruit), Wuni dedek.
Lesser Sunda Islands: Ai burumi (Tetum), Ai panah, Eikahodok, Lingko-sosor-rona (Ladju), Rawamuga (Waijewa), Toro.
Malay Peninsula: Remool, Penawar (Ba tek), Mata pelanduk, Mempenai ayer, Wamhanu.
Papua: Pupabee or Popawee (Dani); Papua New Guinea: Assafa (Dunatina), Kinskins (Wahgi: Mini), Koril (Chibu: Masul), Mupuruma (Asaro: Kefamo).
Philippines: Agosep, Agosip or Agusit (Tagbanua), Aihip (Neg.), Banuang (Cebuano), Bignay pogo or Binayoyo (Tagbanua) [pogo = small, chicken-like ground bird, bignay = Antidesma bunius], Bulinai (Pint. Sbl) or Bulinay (Tagbanua), Malabignay (Tagbanua) [looks like bignay (= Antidesma bunius)], Mataindo (Manobo), Matelok (Lan.), Misalagon (Tagbanua), Mongay (Buk.), Pagakpatulangan (Sub), Pagpas (Bilaan), Tegas (Sub.), Tuba.
Sumatra: Burunai pajo, Kayu aritan, Kayu simburo, Kayu djuhut tasu, Kayu laman, Kayu manuk-manuk, Kayu motton, Kayu si balik hangin, Kayu si basa, Kayu si kala, Kayu si loppur, Kayu si losu, Krinom masim, Kukunaw (Bisaya), Lagas-lagas (Kedayan), Palse palse, Tutun burunai silai.
Thailand: Mao, Mao lek, Sommao khao, Sommao polo.