Passiflora foetida L., Sp. Pl. 959 (1753)

Latin for 'bad smelling'.

Synonyms
Decaloba obscura (Lindl.) M.Roem.
Dysosmia ciliata M.Roem.
Dysosmia foetida (L.) M.Roem.
Dysosmia gossypiifolia M.Roem.
Dysosmia hastata M.Roem.
Dysosmia hibiscifolia M.Roem.
Dysosmia hircina Sweet ex M. Roem.
Dysosmia nigelliflora M.Roem.
Dysosmia polyadena M.Roem.
Granadilla foetida (L.) Gaertn.
Passiflora balansae Chodat
Passiflora baraquiniana Lem.
Passiflora foetida var. balansae Chodat
Passiflora foetida var. galapagensis Killip
Passiflora foetida var. gardneri Killip
Passiflora foetida var. glabrifolia Miq. ex Triana & Planch.
Passiflora foetida var. hastata (Bertol.) Mast.
Passiflora foetida var. hirsuta (L.) Mast.
Passiflora foetida var. hirsutissima Killip
Passiflora foetida var. isthmia Killip
Passiflora foetida var. lanuginosa Killip
Passiflora foetida var. maxonii Killip
Passiflora foetida var. mayarum Killip
Passiflora foetida var. nigelliflora (Hook.) Mast.
Passiflora foetida var. salvadorensis Killip
Passiflora foetida var. sericea Chodat & Hassl.
Passiflora foetida var. subpalmata Killip
Passiflora foetida var. variegata G. Mey.
Passiflora hastata Bertol.
Passiflora hibiscifolia var. velutina Fenzl ex Jacq.
Passiflora hirsuta Lodd.
Passiflora liebmannii Mast.
Passiflora marigouja Perr. ex Triana & Planch.
Passiflora muralis Barb. Rodr.
Passiflora nigelliflora Hook.
Passiflora polyadena Vell.
Passiflora pseudociliata Britton
Passiflora variegata Mill.
Passiflora vesicaria L.
Tripsilina foetida (L.) Raf.

Description
The stems are thin and wiry, covered with minute sticky yellow hairs. Older stems become woody. The leaves are three- to five-lobed and viscid-hairy. When crushed, these leaves give off a pungent odor that some people consider unpleasant. The flowers are white to pale cream coloured, about 5ĘC6 cm diameter. The fruit is globose, 2ĘC3 cm diameter, yellowish-orange to red when ripe, and has numerous black seeds embedded in the pulp; the fruit are eaten and the seeds dispersed by birds.

Ecology
P. foetida is able to trap insects on its bracts, which exude a sticky substance that also contains digestive enzymes. This minimizes predation on young flowers and fruits. Whether or not it gains nourishment from its prey is uncertain, and it is currently considered a protocarnivorous plant.

Uses
Edible fruit. The fruits are kumquat sized and contain a bluish-white pulp that is mildly sweet and delicately flavored. In the Philippines, the fruit of Passiflora foetida are known colloquially as Marya-marya ('Little Mary') and Santo papa (due to its resemblance to the Pope's mitre). Young leaves and plant tips are also edible. Dry leaves are used in tea in Vietnamese folk medicine to relieve sleeping problems. Passiflora foetida contains high levels of saponins and is used as a substitute for soap in the manufacture of (soap-free) detergents.

Distribution
Native to Southwestern USA to South America. Introduced in most other tropical regions of the world.

Local names
Philippines: Marya-marya, Santo-papa.