Aglaia odoratissima Blume, Bijdr. (1825)

Latin for 'very fragrant'.

Synonyms
Aglaia affinis Merr.
Aglaia cuspidella Ridl.
Aglaia diepenhorstii Miq.
Aglaia fraseri Ridl.
Aglaia heterophylla Merr.
Aglaia luzoniensis var. trifoliata Merr. & Rolfe
Aglaia odoratissima var. forbesii Baker.f.
Aglaia odoratissima var. parvifolia Koord. & Valet.
Aglaia odoratissima var. pauciflora Koord. & Valet.
Aglaia paniculata Kurz
Milnea blumei Teijsm. & Binn.

Description
Small tree up to 12(-27) m. Bole up to 31 cm diameter. Bark smooth, greenish-grey to brown, with small lenticels in longitudinal rows; inner bark green or magenta; sapwood pale pink or pale yellowish-brown or dark reddish-brown; occasionally with some white latex. Branches few, long, much divaricate, patent or ascending- patent, with the ultimate branches horizontal in one plane. Twigs slender, densely covered with peltate scales and usually with pale yellowish-brown stellate hairs interspersed, the scales dark brown, some with a marked fimbriate margin, others much less so. Leaves few on each twig, imparipinnate, 10-30 cm long, 5-30 cm wide; petiole 1.5-6.5 cm, greenish brown, petiole, rachis and petiolules densely covered with scales and stellate hairs similar to those on twigs. Leaflets (1-)3-5(-7), 4.5-18(-23.5) by 2-6(-8.5) cm, bluish-green above and pale brown below when dry, acuminate-caudate at apex with the obtuse acumen often narrow and parallel-sided and up to 20 mm long, rounded or cuneate at the usually asymmetrical base, with scales or hairs like those on the twigs occasional on midrib of upper surface, numerous on midrib of lower surface and scattered on the rest of that surface (occasionally numerous, especially in Borneo); veins 5-9(-11) on each side of the midrib, petiolules up to 20(-35) mm. Male inflorescence 7-35 cm long, 2-25 cm wide, peduncle 0-20 mm; rachis, branches and pedicels with numerous reddish-brown stellate scales. Male flowers up to 1.5 mm in diam.; pedicels c. 1 mm. Calyx with numerous reddish-brown stellate scales on the outer surface. Petals 5. Staminal tube less than half the length of the corolla, shallowly cup-shaped with the apical margin incurved and shallowly 5-lobcd; anthers c. 0.2 mm long and wide, ovoid, inserted just below and protruding through the aperture of the tube, pointing towards the centre of the flower. Female inflorescence a narrow spikelike raceme 3.5-12 cm long with up to 20 brownish-yellow Howers. Female flowers up to 2 mm in diam., obovoid, like the male in structure but slightly larger. Infructescence up to 20 cm long and 15 cm wide. Fruits 1.5-2 cm long, 1-1.5 cm in diam., ellipsoid or obovoid, rounded at apex and tapering at base, yellow, orange or orange-red. densely covered with pinkish-orange stellate scales turning brown when dry; pericarp 1-1.5 mm thick, fibrous and flexible, the innermost layer a detachable membrane which surrounds the seed. Locule(s) 1 (or 2). containing 1 seed. Seed c. 1.3 cm long. 0.9 cm wide and 0.8 cm through; aril completely covering the seed, pale pink, translucent. gelatinous, sweet-tasting, attached along the raphe; seed coat thin. hard, dark brown; main vascular bundle running through the raphe and antiraphe. divaricately branching from the raphe over the sides of the seed. [from Flora Malesiana]

Ecology
Found in primary, including riverine forest, secondary forest and periodically inundated swamp forest, along road-sides; on limestone, sandstone, metamorphic rock, alluvial, granitic sand, coral, clay, loam, basalt; sea level to 1900 m altitude;

Uses
In Java the fragrant flowers are used to flavour tea. In India, Indonesia and China an essential oil is distilled from the seed but not on a commercial scale. Several parts of the tree are used medicinally. The wood is strong and fairly durable but only available in small sizes.

Distribution
Burma, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes.

Local names
Borneo: Lantupak, Lembunau, Mata kuching munyit, Tangiran manok, Tangsat gusing.
Indonesia: pancal kidang (Javanese), tanglu (Lampung), pi-kopijan (Madurese).
Malaysia: kasai, telur belangkas hutan, merlimau.
Thailand: prayong paa (central), sangkhriat (peninsular).