Litsea firma (Blume) Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1886)
Latin for 'strong'.
Litsea cylindrocarpa Gamble
Litsea sibuyanensis Elmer
Litsea turfosa Kosterm.
Malapoenna firma (Blume) Kuntze
Tetranthera firma Blume
Upper canopy tree up to 41 m tall and 80 cm dbh. Stipules absent. Leaves
alternate, simple, penni-veined, usually glabrous, sometimes whitish below,
tertiary venation forming conspicuous reticulate network. Flowers ca. 9 mm
diameter, yellow, placed in axillary bundles. Fruits ca. 11 mm long, red-purple,
drupes placed on enlarged flower base (cupule).
Large canopy tree (up to c. 40 m high); Bole cylindrical (up to c. 80 cm diam.); straight
(bole up to 30 m long); Bark brown or orange, rough, scaly or flaky (large flakes); Subrhytidome
(under-bark) brown; less than 25 mm thick; bark blaze consisting of one layer; faintly to non-aromatic;
outer blaze brown or orange; inner blaze orange or brown. Mature twig indumentum (hairs) absent or
present when young, hairs dense to sparse (with hairs reddish). Leaves spaced along branches, alternate
spiral, simple; petiole present, not winged, attached to base of leaf blade, not swollen; leaves broadest
at or near middle, 6.0-13.0 cm, 2.5-6.6 cm; symmetric, entire, not dissected or lobed, obtuse, venation
pinnate, secondary veins open, prominent, intramarginal veins absent; leaves lower surface yellow to green
to blue-green, upper surface dark green, indumentum (hairs) absent (upper surface) to present (lower
surface), indumentum (hairs) sparse (with short hairs restricted to veins of lower surface); absent;
domatia absent; stipules absent. Inflorescence on the trunk or branches (on distal branchlets below
leaves) to axillary, flowers arising from a single point or sometimes flowers on a branched axis; flowers
unisexual, unisexual with male and female flowers on different plants, stalked, flowers with many planes
of symmetry, 3.0-4.0 mm long, diameter small (up to 10 mm diam.) (3-4 mm diam.); perianth present, with
all sepals and/or petals (hence tepals) similar, inner perianth pale green or pale yellow; 3 (perianth
consisting of 3 outer plus 3 inner parts that are frequently similar in shape and colour), free;
stamens 0 (female flowers) to 9 (male flowers), present, free of each other, free of the perianth;
ovary superior (female flowers, absent in male flowers), carpels solitary, locules 1; styles solitary
(female flowers) or absent (male flowers), 1. Infrutescence arising from single point or sometimes
arranged on branched axis, fruit 10.0-15.0 mm long, 10.0 (c.) mm diam., red, not spiny, slightly fleshy,
simple (receptacle enlarged and forming a cup around the base of the fruit), indehiscent, drupe; seeds 1,
about 10 mm long, not winged, broad (as wide as long), seed 1-10 mm diam. (7-8 mm diam.). [from PNGTreesKey]
In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp, keranga and swamp forests up to 500 m
altitude. On alluvial sites as well as dry hillsides and ridges. On sandy to
clay soils, but also on limestone.
Commercial hardwood, sold as Medang wood.
Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea.
Borneo: Medang, Medang pirawas.