cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour.) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 2: 17 (1856)

Species name meaning 'from Cochinchina', referring to Indochina.

Synonyms
Ancistrolobus brevipes Turcz.
Ancistrolobus carneus Voigt
Ancistrolobus ligustrinus Spach
Cratoxylum biflorum (Lam.) Turcz.
Cratoxylum chinense (Hance) Merr.
Cratoxylum chinense (Retz.) Merr.
Cratoxylum hypoleuca Elmer
Cratoxylum lanceolatum Miq.
Cratoxylum ligustrinum (Spach) Blume
Cratoxylum myrtifolium Blume
Cratoxylum petiolatum (Lour.) Blume
Cratoxylum polyanthum Korth.
Cratoxylum polyanthum var. carneum Kurz
Cratoxylum polyanthum var. genuinum Korth.
Cratoxylum polyanthum var. ligustrinum (Spach) Dyer
Cratoxylum polyanthum var. macrocarpum Boerl.
Cratoxylum polyanthum var. wightii Dyer
Cratoxylum wightii Blume
Elodea chinensis Hance
Elodes chinensis (Retz.) Hance
Elodea pulchella Loud.
Hypericum biflorum Lam.
Hypericum carneum Wall.
Hypericum chinense Retz.
Hypericum cochinchinense Lour.
Hypericum horridum Wall.
Hypericum pulchellum Wall.
Oxycarpus cochinchinensis Lour.
Stalagmites erosipetala Miq.
Vismia cochinchinense (Lour.) Spreng.

Diagnostics
Shrub to tree with some spines at base of stem, brown-red watery sap. Stipules absent, but line between leaf-pairs visible. Young twigs usually with spines. Leaves opposite, deciduous, venation pinnate, but nor forming an intra-marginal vein, lower surface usually withish. Inflorescence with few flowers only (up to five). Flowers orange, pink or dark red, petals without nectary glands. Seeds unilaterally winged.

Description
Tree or shrub, spiny at base, to c. 30 m tall, deciduous, glabrous; bark smooth, pale or scaly, grey-brown; young shoots with interpetiolar scar continuous or interrupted. Leaves with petiole 2-5 mm, 3-10.5 by 1-4 cm, elliptic to ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, apex obtuse to acutely acuminate, base broadly cuneate to attenuate, herbaceous to chartaceous, nearly always glaucous beneath. Inflorescence of 1-5-flowered axillary and usually terminal cymules; pedicels 1-2 mm. Flowers heterodistylous. Sepals 5-7 by 2-5 mm. Petals dark red to pink or orange, 5-10 by 2.5-5 mm. Stamen fascicles 4-8 mm long, with stamens +/- congested, c. 45-55 per fascicle; anther gland sometimes present. Staminodial fascicles (if developed) yellow, up to 3 mm long, flattened, oblong to obovate, cucullate. Ovary 2-3 mm long; styles 1-3 mm. Capsule 8-12 by 45 mm, c. 1-1.5 times as long as sepals, ellipsoid-cylindric, with columella basal. Seeds (5-)6-8 per loculus, 6-8 by 2-3 mm, oblanceolate to elliptic or oblong. [from Flora Malesiana]

Ecology
In primary or secondary forest, open woodland, grassland and river banks on usually well-drained soils of various types, 0-500 m (to 1200 m in China).

Distribution
Burma, southern China, Hongkong, Hainan, Indo-China, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines (Palawan).

Uses
Bark can be used as brown coloured dye, wood is very hard and durable. The young shoots are edible and used as a raw vegetable. The young fruit is used as a spice for cooking. The roots, bark, and twigs are used as a medicine for colds and diarrhea. The young leaves are used a substitute for tea.

Local names
Borneo: mampat, maradjalang, mulun (W. Borneo), baduk-baduk, geronggang, mogizon, pelawan-pelawan (Brunei), selangan-biabas, taikakan (Selangan Is.).
China: huang niu mu.
Malaysia: derum selunchor, selunchus (Perak), kaju arang, kemuntong, pelawan (Kelantan), belawan padang, kelochus (Pahang), beluchus (Negri Sembilan), serapat.
Sumatra: mulu (Lampong), kaju lulus, lelulus (Palembang), tnengidjang (Barika).