Fagraea racemosa Jack ex Wall., in Roxb. Fl. Ind. 2 (1824)

Latin for 'raceme', referring to the inflorescence.

Synonyms
Fagraea appendiculata Blume
Fagraea coartata Blume
Fagraea coartata var. ligustrina Blume
Fagraea congestiflora Elmer
Fagraea cordifolia Blume
Fagraea crassipes Benth.
Fagraea cuspidata Blume
Fagraea cymosa Merr.
Fagraea eucalyptifolia Cammerl.
Fagraea gracilis Cammerl.
Fagraea grandifolia Merr.
Fagraea latifolia Miq.
Fagraea ligustrina Blume
Fagraea ligustrina var. brachystachya Blume
Fagraea ligustrina var. disparifolia Blume
Fagraea maingayi Clarke in Hook.f.
Fagraea malayana Mart.
Fagraea morindaefolia (Reinw.) Blume
Fagraea pauciflora (King & Gamble) Ridl.
Fagraea pendula Merr.
Fagraea racemosa var. coarctata
Fagraea racemosa var. grandis
Fagraea racemosa var. pauciflora King & Gamble
Fagraea robusta Blume
Fagraea rodatzii K.Sch. & Laut.
Fagraea scholaris Blanco
Fagraea spicata Baker
Fagraea stenophylla Becc.
Fagraea subreticulata Blume
Fagraea teysmannii Cammerl.
Fagraea thwaitesii F.Muell.
Fagraea volubilis Wall. in Roxb.
Kentia morindaefolia (Reinw.) Steud.
Kuhlia morindaefolia Reinw.
Utania morindaefolia (Reinw.) Don
Willughbeia racemosa (Jack ex Wall.) Spreng.
Willughbeia volubilis (Wall. in Roxb.) Spreng.

Diagnostics
Understorey tree up to 17 m tall and 30 cm dbh. Stipules ca. 7 mm long, fused into an annular ring around the twig. Leaves opposite, simple, penni-veined, leathery, glabrous. Flowers ca. 16 mm diameter, white-yellow, long corolla tube, placed in racemes. Fruits ca. 15 mm long, yellow-pinkish-blue, berries with many small seeds.

Description
Tree, 2-10(-16 or even -35?) m, up to c. 30 cm diameter, shrub or sometimes a straggling climber. Leaves varying from broadly ovate via elliptic, obovate oblong and oblong to oblong-lanceolate or rarely even linear, 5-50 by 1-23 cm, thinly to thickly coriaceous or almost fleshy, sometimes bullate between the nerves; base cuneate, obtuse, rounded or often slightly to distinctly cordate; apex acute, obtuse, rounded or very often shortly to rather long acuminate; nerves usually 4-12 pairs, sunken or less often flat to very slightly prominent above, distinctly prominent beneath; reticulations lax, more or less distinctly visible; petiole 0.2-5 cm, thin to stout; stipules connate into an annular, up to 0.8 cm high ocrea which clasps the twig. Inflorescences erect, nodding, or very often drooping, 2-60 cm long (incl. the 1-30 cm long, slender to robust peduncle); usually thyrsoid with decussate, spaced, nearly sessile cymes of c. 7 (the higher ones less) long-stalked flowers; by reduction spiciform if the internodes are short combined with sessile cymes and short-stalked flowers, corymbose if all cymes or at least the lower ones are long-stalked, laxly branched, and many flowered, racemiform if the cymes are sessile and few-flowered or in the apical part even 1-flowered, or glomerulous if the whole inflorescence is reduced to 5-7 flowers crowded on a long stalk; pedicels (0-)0.7-3 cm, thin to stout, 2-bracteolate at the base. Calyx campanulate to subglobose, 0.2-1.5 cm, divided about halfway down or slightly deeper. Corolla-lube 24 cm, funnel-shaped. Anthers rather thick oblong, c. 3.5 mm long, cells free in their basal half. Stigma (broadened) obconical, up to c. 1.5-2 mm broad, subtruncate, faintly 2-lobed. Berry globose-ellipsoid-ovoid, tipped by the very short but distinct style-base, up to 2.5 cm long, said to be sky-blue (or red?) when ripe. [from Flora Malesiana]

Ecology
Light to rather dense, often secondary forests on swampy to dry soil, on muddy riverbanks, podsolized sand, sometimes in savannahs and lalang fields, 0-2000 m. The flowers have a smell of butter or buttermilk, as they produce diacetyl, a substance which is characteristic of bat-visited flowers; there are, however, no observations that Fagraea flowers are visited by bats. Fruits are bat dispersed.

Uses
The soft to moderately hard timber is used for construction and as firewood. Decoctions of the leaves, bark, and roots play a role in Malayan medicine, mainly as tonics; in the Philippines the bark and the flowers are used as an antidote for snake bites.

Distribution
From Burma and Indo-China to New Guinea, Australia and Solomon Islands.

Local names
Borneo: Engkudug biang, Girang, Sukong ranyai, Tembusu gaja, Tigaan, Todopon puvok, Ukudu ayer.