Mallotus mollissimus (Geiseler) Airy Shaw, Kew Bull. 26 (1972)

Latin for 'soft hairy'.

Adelia barbata Blanco
Adelia bernardia Blanco
Adisca zippelii Blume
Adisia zippelii Steud.
Chrozophora mollissima (Geiseler) A.Juss. ex Spreng.
Croton mollissimus Geiseler
Croton ricinoides Pers.
Echinus mollissimus (Geiseler) Baill.
Mallotus confusus Merr.
Mallotus pycnostachys F.Muell.
Mallotus ricinoides (Pers.) Mull.Arg.
Mallotus zippelii F.Muell.
Mappa zippelii Zoll. & Moritzi ex Moritzi
Rottlera peltata Miq.
Rottlera pycnostachys F.Muell.
Rottlera ricinoides (Pers.) A.Juss.
Rottlera zippelii Hassk.
Rottlera zippelii var. minor Reichb.f. & Zoll.

Understorey tree up to 12 m tall and 15 cm dbh. Stipules ca. 1 mm long. Leaves alternate, simple, tripli-veined, hairy below, often with two basal nectary glands on upper surface. Flowers ca. 4 mm diameter, white-yellowish, placed in panicles. Fruits ca. 13 mm diameter, yellow-brownish, roundish, densely spiny, dehiscent capsules, seeds with black aril.

Shrubs to small trees up to 12 m high, dbh up to 15 cm, dioecious, occasionally monoecious; bole up to 5 m high; crown up to 6 m long. Outer bark rough to finely fissured or pustular lenticellate, up to 2 mm thick, yellowish green, under surface light reddish brown; inner bark up to 6 mm thick, fibrous, light greenish; sapwood cream with watery sap; wood medium hard, cream. Indumentum dense, sometimes soft-floccose, flocci up to 4 mm long, rarely tomentose. Stipules narrowly triangular, 0.7-1.5 by 0.1-0.3 mm, caducous to persistent, margin subentire, apex acuminate. Leaves alternate to apically subopposite; petiole 30-200 by 1.5-4 mm; blade subpeltate or peltate for 1.5-40 mm, ovate, 10-35 by 8-30 cm, length/width ratio 1.2-1.4, reddish brown when young, base truncate to cuneate, margin entire to dentate, seldom 2-lobed at the widest part of the blade, longest lobes up to 15 mm long, upper surface green, basally with 0-2(-4) extrafloral nectaries, 0.8-4 by 0.4-1.8 mm, marginal nectaries 0-15 per side, 2-10 mm from margin,0.5-1 by 0.5-1 mm, lower surface greenish grey to brownish, with domatia or not; 3- or palminerved, nerves 8-11 per side, mostly ending in the margin. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, unisexual or bisexual, axes greenish tawny, basally 1-4 mm thick; bracts narrowly triangular, 1.8-3 by 0.2-0.5 mm, caducous to persistent, margin subentire; bracteoles absent. Staminate inflorescences up to 43 cm long, side branches up to 20 cm long, with 3-5 flowers per node, nodes per branch up to 100. Staminate flowers 3-5 mm diam.; pedicels 3-3.5 mm long; sepals 3 or 4, elliptic, 2-3 by 1.5-2 mm, greyish; stamens 50-80,yellowish, filaments 1.5-3 mm long, anthers 0.2-0.3 by 0.1-0.2 mm; pistillode present. Pistillate inflorescences racemes, up to 35cm long, occasionally side branches up to 13 cm long, nodes up to 130; bracts caducous to persistent. Pistillate flowers 3-4 mm diam.; pedicels up to 0.5 mm long; calyx 3-5-lobed, connate on the base, 2-3 mm long, green with brown indumentum, lobes ovate, 1.5-2 by 1-1.7 mm; ovary 3-locular, 2.2-3 by 2-3 mm, spines individually visible; style up to 1.2 mm long; stigmas 2.2-2.8 mm long, greenish yellow; staminodes absent. Fruits 10-16 by 11-17 mm, greenish brown, smelling strong when dried, see note 3, spines numerous, curly, thin, less hairy, up to 7 mm long, hairs not forming a continuous layer, easily rubbing off; column 5-6 by 1-1.8 mm. Seeds ellipsoid, 4-5 by 3.8-4 by 3-3.2 mm, smooth, black, shiny; hilum c. 1 by 0.6-0.7 mm. [from Flora Malesiana]

Locally common in deciduous and evergreen forest, mostly in open, often very disturbed or burned places, gallery forest, mangrove edges, swamp forest, riparian vegetation, notophyll vineforest, on mountain slopes, open grasslands and along hill and road sides; on a large variety of soil types, like alluvial, basalt rocks, clay, coral limestone, loam, rocky, sandy, ultrabasic, and volcanic. Altitude: sea level up to 1700 m.

The roots are used against headaches and malaria. The inner bark is used as a strap for carrying and for sing sing decorations. The leaves are used as food covering, against stomach cramp, and together with the bark used to cure the spleen. The wood is used for making scabbards, ritual spears, building construction, and as firewood.

Sumatra to New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Australia.

Local names
Borneo: Ambutan, Andalamit, Angkut-angkut, Andalasan, Dahu, Dau, Dupulan, Dapulon-dapulon, Du-long perampuang, Kasobong, Kedayan, Laba-laba, Lukabang, Padahu, Padau-padau, Pais tahun, Pandau pandu, Patau jantan.
Brunei: Jabai, Laba-laba, Markubong, Prestaang, Tokatoka, Tuka, Sawarbubu.
Java: Djalikangin, Toetoep beling.
Papua (Irian Jaya): Bekoeaap, Bekwaap, Bie grai, Majetrip (Hattam); Mangafafin (Biak).
Papua New Guinea: Atatiza (Garaina, Waria); Majetrip (Hattam); Wapi (Marok); Siripupo (Orakiva); Wasittatt (Wein); Ah papper, Goreh-gobu, Hukoitiiti, Hukopu, Kikikanauant, La putu la basi, Moraka, Ongohn, Tiwotiwo, Ukoiitiiti.
Philippines: Hanonomo (Bis¨˘ya); Indang (L¨˘nao); Bampalan (S¨˛lu); Hinlaumo (Tag¨˘log); Ipalan (Yak¨˘n); Aab-ben, Anumoh, Anum¨˛tagabas, Atay-atay, Baray, Cahoy-dalaga, Gapasgapas, Malang-malang, Maracapau, Tagaan.
Sabah: Dapulan, Dullong perampuang (Bajau); Patau jantan (Bajec); Kasobong (Daho); Andalamit, Angkutangkut, Dahu, Dau, Kedayan, Lukabang, Padau-padau, Padahu, Pandau pandu (Dusun); Laba-laba (Kinabatangan); Bajau papar, Murut tenom (Kwijau); Ambutan, Dawoh, Lapakon (Murut); Dapulon-dapulon, Pais tahun (Suluk); Apat retu, Apatmaratu, Pit dau (Sungei); Andalasan, Kehat, Labah-labah, Labah lahat, Ludai, Padauk, Porak sembelik, Purak sambalik.
Sarawak: Labah-labah (Kedayan); Lalapakon (Murut).
Sulawesi: Kayou wollo sola, Laransiana oeroene, Lemoro, Ota-ota.
Sumatra: Kajoe si balihangin.