Macaranga tanarius (L.) Mull.Arg., in DC. Prodr. 15, 2 (1866)

Latin for 'tannin'.

Croton lacciferus Blanco
Macaranga molliuscula Kurz
Macaranga tanarius var. brevibracteata Müll. Arg.
Macaranga tanarius var. glabra F.Muell.
Macaranga tanarius var. tomentosa (Blume) Müll.Arg.
Macaranga tomentosa (Blume) Druce [Illegitimate]
Macaranga vulcanica Elmer ex Merr. [Invalid]
Mappa moluccana Wight
Mappa tanarius (L.) Blume
Mappa tomentosa Blume
Ricinus tanarius L.
Rottlera tanarius (L.) Hassk.
Rottlera tomentosa (Blume) Hassk.

Understorey tree up to 19 m tall and 47 cm dbh. Twigs solid. Stipules erect, ca. 14 mm long. Leaves alternate, simple, peltate, palmately-veined, rarely with basal nectary glands on upper leaf surface, lower surface glabrous to hairy. Flowers ca. 0.5 mm diameter, green-yellowish, clustered within bracts which are part of large panicles. Fruits ca. 10 mm diameter, grey-yellowish, 2-lobed, dehischent capsules with few long soft spines, seeds with black aril.

Small trees. Twigs terete, glabrous. Stipules ovate, to 15 by 8 mm, apex acute, glabrous, dark brown, papery, erect, subpersistent or caducous. Expanding leaves: petioles and leaves pubescent, very soon becoming glabrous except at base of main nerves below. Leaves: petioles to 15 cm, terete; blades ovate, to 17 by 15 cm, papery, base rounded, to 4 cm peltate, margin distantly finely toothed, apex acute to acuminate, usually drying khaki brown, glabrous, below with usually dark, rarely golden, granular glands, with spider's web nervation. Staminate inflorescences variable; narrow panicles to 15 cm long, glabrous, main axis flattened; basal peduncle to 10 cm; secondary axes in fascicles of 3-5, lowest usually subopposite, tertiary thread-like axes; flower clusters spaced; branches subtended by usually soon caducous stipule-like bracts, to 8 mm long; bracteoles persistent, larger than clusters, to 6 by 3 mm, apex acuminate to caudate, margin toothed, glabrous, sometimes nerved; clusters developing more or less simultaneously. Staminate flowers 5-6(-14) per cluster, tiny, 0.5 mm; pedicel 1-1.5 mm; sepals free, glabrous; stamens 6-7, anthers 4-locular. Infructescences with fruits crowded at head of a 4-16 cm, bare, flattened, glabrous peduncle, subtended by caducous, sometimes stalked bracts; latter leafy, ovate, 4 by 4 mm or larger, apex acuminate, upper margin deeply dentate to fimbriate, papery, glabrous, concave. Fruits bilobed, to 10 mm across by 6 mm, leathery, glabrous, with numerous long slender processes from upper half, woody; pedicel 2 mm; calyx tiny, persistent; styles 2, persistent, 5 mm, filiform, apical. Seeds round, verrucose. [from Flora Malesiana]

Usually in severely degraded dipterocarp, keranga and sub-montane forests up to 2100 m altitude. Also near beaches and along tidal streams, along roadsides and hillsides and ridges. Mostly on sandy to rocky soils.

Wood locally used for house construction.

From India, China and Japan south to the West pacific and Australia.

Local names
Borneo: Kakat, Limboga, Lingkobong, Melang kabau, Sedaman, Sedaman susuan, Singkabong.