Macaranga conifera (Zoll.) Mull.Arg., in DC., Prodr. 15, 2 (1866)

Latin for 'with cones'.

Macaranga populifolia (Miq.) Müll.Arg.
Mappa conifera Rchb.f. & Zoll.
Mappa populifolia (Miq.) Müll.Arg.
Pachystemon populifolius Miq.
Pachystemon populifolius Miq.
Tanarius populifolius (Miq.) Kuntze

Sub-canopy tree up to 27(-30) m tall and 60 cm dbh. Stipules ca. 12 mm long, reddish. Leaves alternate, simple, penni- to tripli-veined, glabrous to hairy below, whitish below, sometimes with nectary glands on base of upper surface. Flowers ca. 0.5 mm diameter, green-yellowish, placed in small bundles within fimbriate bracts which is part of branched inflorescence. Fruits ca. 7 mm diameter, green-yellowish, 2-lobed, dehiscent capsules, sometimes with short spines, seeds with orange aril.

Trees, sometimes reaching 30 m, dbh up to 60 cm; bole straight. Bark hooped, dippled, latex red; inner bark red; wood white. Twigs slender, to 4 mm diam., solid, terete, smooth, usually dark brown, finely furfuraceous becoming glabrous. Stipules lanceolate 5 by 2 mm, apex acuminate, dark brown, papery, finely furfuraceous, spreading, soon caducous. Leaves: petioles 3 cm, very slender, 1 mm diam., terete, glabrous; blades elliptic, occasionally trullate, c. 8(-9) by 4(-7) cm, membranous, base broadly rounded, to (almost) truncate (peltate in youth), margin entire, minutely recurved, apex acuminate, typically drying khaki, glabrous, closely below granular glandular and glaucous, secondary nerves very delicate often darker than lamina, sometimes slightly raised below. Staminate inflorescences amongst and behind leaves, crowded, dense, glabrous, 3-4 cm racemes (or with a few short third order axes); main axis terete; peduncle 5-20 mm, granular glandular, slender; branches alternate, catkin-like, with dense overlapping bracteoles enclosing flower clusters; bracts entire, oblong, 2 mm, soon caducous; bracteoles deltoid, 3 by 2 mm, apex acute, coarsely regular dentate, papery, glabrous, both sides granular glandular, persistent, erect. Staminate flowers in clusters of c. 12, tiny, 0.2 mm; pedicel 0.2 mm, glabrous; sepals free; stamen 1, anther 4-locular. Infructescences as staminate. Fruits crowded, bilobed, 4 by 8 by 4 mm, woody, closely yellow brown granular glandular; pedicel slender 2 mm; calyx minute, papery, unlobed, reflexed; stigmas 2, persistent, apical, short, recurved, smooth. Seeds with a thin sarcotesta, globose, testa with flat warts. [from Flora Malesiana]

In disturbed sites within mixed dipterocarp and swamp forests, but most common in secondary forests and scrub up to 1100 m altitude. Common along roadsides, riversides, hillsides and ridges. Also found on limestone.

Andaman Islands, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi.

Local names
Borneo: Dila mata, Enkarumi, Lunak, Mahang, Marakit, Markit kadayan, Sadaman, Sange-sange, Sepu.