Cleidion javanicum Blume, Bijdr. 613 (1826)

Species name meaning 'from Java' referring to one of its collection localities.

Synonyms
Acalypha acuminata Vahl ex Baill. [Illegitimate]
Acalypha spicigera Klotzsch
Cleidion javanicum var. javanicum
Cleidion spiciflorum auct. non (Burm.f.) Merr. (excl. type)
Lasiostyles salicifolia C.Presl
Macaranga tamiana K.Schum.
Mallotus geloniifolius MĘ╣ll.Arg. ex Pax & K.Hoffm. [Invalid]
Rottlera urandra Dalzell
Tanarius tamianus (K.Schum.) Kuntze
Tetraglossa indica Bedd.
Tragia filiformis Poir.

Diagnostics
The only Malesian species with domatia on lower leaf surface and a predominantly 2-locular ovary.

Description
(Shrub to) tree, up to 30 m high, dbh up to 50 cm, dioecious (to rarely monoecious); flowering branches 1-4.5 mm thick. Outer bark smooth to slightly roughened or fissured, thin, grey to brown (to greenish), cream to yellow inside, inner bark 3-10(-20) mm thick, light brown to yellowish to straw; sapwood white to straw to creamy yellow. Indumentum sericeous, in staminate parts also hirsute and variably oriented, vegetative parts (excluding domatia) glabrous, generative parts (sub)glabrous to sparsely hairy (except ovary glabrous to densely hairy); granulate surfaces absent. Stipules 2-3.5 by 0.75-1.5 mm, early caducous. Leaves usually in Terminalia growth (flushes); petiole 0.9-9 cm long, usually with 2 raised glands at apex; blade (ovate to) elliptic (to slightly obovate), 5-24 by 1.7-9.7 cm, length/width ratio 1.7-3.8(-4.6), base obtuse to cuneate (to attenuate), margin subentire to serrate with coarse teeth, teeth 7-20 per side, apex (rounded to acute to) acuminate, very apex retuse to rounded to acute, lower surface with shallow, open domatia with single and tufted hairs; nerves (3-)4-10 per side. Staminate inflorescences up to 25 cm long, basally 0.5-1.5 mm thick, flowers 3-several per node, in fascicles, rachis green; bracts 1-2.5 by 1-2 mm. Staminate flowers: pedicels up to 7 mm long, light green; buds 1.5-3 mm diam., brown when dry; sepals 2-4 by 1-2.5 mm, (light) green; stamens 48-120, filaments up to 1.8 mm long, anthers (0.3-)0.4-0.6 by 0.3-0.6(-0.8) mm, yellow to cream, apiculum 0.1-0.3 mm long. Pistillate inflorescences 2.5-11.5 cm long, basally 0.75-1.5 mm thick, 1-flowered, with 1-4 sterile bracts; latter 1.5-2 by 0.75-2 mm, early caducous. Pistillate flowers: abscission zone absent; sepals (4 or) 5, 1-2.5 by 1-2 mm, green, caducous to persistent; locules 2 (or 3); style 1-12 mm long; stigmas erect, 15-30 mm long. Fruits: one locule often reduced (perfect 3-seeded fruits extremely rare), 11-18 by 13-21 (1-seeded) or 19-28 mm (2-seeded), tardily opening, surface +/- smooth to verrucose, green when fresh, dark brown to dark grey when dry, inner wall often mottled. Seeds 8.5-14 by 8.5-13.5 mm; hilum elliptic to obovate, 2.5-5.5 by 1-2.5 mm. [from Flora Malesiana]

Ecology
In open to shaded places, evergreen to deciduous primary and secondary forests, often along rivers or streams; alluvial to dry soil; varying bedrock, but often on limestone. Altitude up to 1200 m.

Uses
Various parts are used medicinally in Thailand and the Philippines: a decoction of the poisonous leaves will produce abortion, and a decoction of the bark is used for stomach ache; in the Solomon Islands a decoction of the bark is used externally to treat scabies. It is a common village shade tree in the Solomon Islands. The wood is used for house posts in Vanuatu. The wood is reported to be greyish white and soft.

Distribution
From India and southern China to New Guinea, Australia and the West Pacific.

Local names
Bali: Putian (Javanese).
Borneo: Entupak (Iban).
Java: Hura batu (Sundanese).
Papua New Guinea: Tea (Bembi); marramamoi (Kaigulin); la mala goli goli (West Nakanai, New Britain); siwono, ibubu (Bougainville Isl.).
Philippines: Paitan, santiki (Tagalog); tubataba (Tagbanua).
Solomon Islands: Saola (Kwaraí»ae).
Sumatra: Urel tenge.
Thailand: Di mee (Karieng); dimi, ma-dee-mee, maj maduug.
Vanuatu: Doptop wumer (Uripiv, Malekula Isl.); nagheliromp (Larevet, Malekula Isl.).