Garcinia xanthochymus Hook.f. ex T.Anderson, Fl. Brit. India 1: 269 (1874)
Name meaning 'yellow sap' a general character for the Clusiaceae.
Garcinia pictoria (Roxb.) Dunn [Illegitimate]
Garcinia pictoria (Roxb.) Engl.
Garcinia roxburghii Kurz [Illegitimate]
Garcinia tinctoria (DC.) W.Wight
Garcinia tinctoria (DC.) Dunn
Stalagmitis pictoria G.Don
Xanthochymus pictorius Roxb.
Xanthochymus tinctorius DC.
A tree with a rounded crown that grows up to 15 in height. The leaves are large
(15.4-30.5 cm in length) and leathery and are oblong to lance shaped. The small flowers
(1.3 cm in diameter) are born in a dense cluster of 4-10 flowers and are greenish white in
color. The flowers are unisexual meaning that the ovule and pollen producing structures are
borne on separate flowers and in this species are borne on different trees. The pollen producing
flowers have five petals and many stamens on which the pollen is produced that are arranged
in bundles each containing five stamens. The ovule producing flowers also have stamens but
they are non-functional or sterile therefore they produce no pollen. The bright yellow-orange
fruit is almost round and is 5 cm to 8.9 cm in diameter. The fleshy fruit usually contains
5 seeds that are surrounded by a yellow pulp that is edible.
In dense humid forests up to 1400 m elevation.
From India and southern China and Japan through Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia.
Fruit is edible and tasty, but a bit sour. Fruits can be eaten fresh out of hand. Often used
in making jams. Can be used as a substitute for tamarind in cooking. Fruit juice and bark
extract are used as dyes. It is cultivated extensively in Southeast Asia where the fruit is
made into preserves, jams, and curries. The dried fruit sap is called gamboge and provides a
dye that is used in watercolor paints. An extract of the bark was found to stimulate the growth
of neurons or nerve tissues in culture studies. Research was conducted that investigates the
anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves. The effect of extracts in inhibiting induced
inflammation in rats was considered statistically significant.
Bangladesh: Dem-gola (Chakma); Aruak (Garo).
Bengali: Dephal, Dambel, Tamal.
China: Da ye teng huang.
English: False mangosteen, Gamboge fruit tree, Yellow mangosteen.
Malaysia: Asam kandis.