Canarium decumanum [Rumph.] Gaertn., Fruct. 2 (1791)

Latin for 'the tenth, or biggest'.

Canariopsis decumana Bl. ex Miq.
Pimela decumana Bl.

Tree, 30-60 by 1.5-2 m, with very large buttresses (up to 8 m high and 5 m wide). Branchlets 1-1.5 cm diam., angular, glabrescent, with large leaf-scars, terminal bud slender, acute, 4-5 cm by 6 mm, densely brown-tomentose; pith thick with many peripherally arranged small vascular strands. Stipules represented by the basal pair of leaflets, which are rather caducous leaving a small circular scar, inserted at the conjunction of branch and petiole and very small (petiolule 4-10 mm, blade 1.5-2.5 by 0.75-2 cm). Leaves spirally arranged, (3-)4-5(-6)-jugate, 35-45 cm long. Leaflets ovate to oblong, 5-10-30 by 2.5-5-10 cm, stiff-chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrescent; base rounded to subcordate; margin entire; apex gradually long and acutely acuminate; nerves 17-22-26 pairs (angle c. 60 degrees), tortuous, towards the margin dissolving into a lax marginal reticulation, rather prominent beneath, some of the nerves more or less reduced (similar to intermediate veins); reticulations dense. Inflorescences axillary, narrowly paniculate, densely minutely tomentose, male 4-19 cm long, many-flowered, main branches up to 6.5 cm, flowers clustered; female 5-7 cm, few flowered, main branches very short. Bracts lanceolate to subulate. Flowers pubescent, male 7-9 mm, female 8-14 mm. Calyx male 3.5 mm high, female 4.5-7 mm. Stamens free, glabrous. Disk male cushion-shaped, 2 mm high, faintly 6-lobed, densely pilose; female 6-lobed, 1 mm high, fimbriate. Pistil pubescent, male none. Infructescences subracemose, with few fruits; calyx flat, 1 cm diam. Fruits ellipsoid, subtrigonous in cross-section, 7-8.5 by 4.5-6 cm, glabrescent, scabrous; pyrene smooth except of 3 angle-ribs near the apex and a faint median rib on each of the lids; lids 4-5 mm thick. Seeds (3-)2-1 ; cells irregularly shaped, sterile ones not or slightly reduced. [from Flora Malesiana]

In undisturbed forests up to 100 m altitude.

Cultivated, especially in Java, for the fruits. The resin and the seeds are used, but they are of no great importance.

Java, Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas and New Guinea.

Local names
Ambon: kanari ketjil.
Borneo: Jelamu, Jilapat, Kedungdong, Kenari, Pamotodon.
Ceram: glama.
Java: Kenari babi, kenari sabrang.
Moluccas: damar amin, hafu bopolulo, hafu gogira, hafu sula, jal amin, jalo halat, jar amin, kamal amin, kami, kenari besar, kenari sula.
Morotai: hapo, hoburu.
Ternate: (njiha) hafo.