Canarium asperum Benth. in Hook.f., Lond. J. Bot. 2 (1843)

Latin for 'rough', referring to the leaves.

Synonyms
Canariopsis aspera Miq.
Canariopsis denticulata Bl.
Canariopsis villosa Miq.
Canarium agusanense Elm.
Canarium apoense Elm.
Canarium asperum var. clementis (Merr.) Leenh.
Canarium barnesii Merr.
Canarium calophyllum Perk.
Canarium clementis Merr.
Canarium clementis var. perumbrinum Merr.
Canarium commune (non L.) Blanco
Canarium cumingii Engl. in DC
Canarium euphlebium Merr.
Canarium fulvum Laut.
Canarium heterophyllum Merr.
Canarium juglandiolium Perk
Canarium koordersianum Engl. ex Hochr.
Canarium lagunense Merr.
Canarium legitinum Miq.
Canarium leytense Elm.
Canarium lucidum Perk.
Canarium luxurians Engl. in DC
Canarium minutiflorum Engl. in DC
Canarium molle Engl. in DC
Canarium ogat Elm.
Canarium papuanum H.J. Lam
Canarium pimela (non Koen.) Blanco
Canarium polyneurum Perk.
Canarium reticulatum Merr.
Canarium samarense Merr.
Canarium sanchezii Merr.
Canarium solo Engl. ex Koord.
Canarium sibuyanense Elm.
Canarium stachyanthum Perk.
Canarium subvelutinum Elm.
Canarium tamborae Laut.
Canarium thyrsoideum Perk.
Canarium treubianum Engl. ex Koord.
Canarium unifoliatum Merr.
Canarium urdanetense Elm.
Canarium valetonianum Engl. ex Hochr.
Canarium villosum Benth. & Hook.f.
Canarium wenzelii Merr.
Canarium zollingeri Engl. in DC
Dammara nigra legitima Rumph.
Pimela denticulata Bl.
Pimela legitima Bl.
Pimela villosa Bl.

Description
Tree 8-37 m by 5-70(-more than 100) cm, rarely a shrub, very rarely buttressed. Branchlets rather slender, nearly always glabrous but for the tip; number and arrangement of vascular strands in the pith very variable. Stipules subpersistent or caducous, inserted beside the petiolar base or rarely on the petiole up to 1.25 cm from the base, subulate, 1-10 mm. Leaves 0-6-jugate. Leaflets very variable, ovate to elliptic, rarely obovate or lanceolate, 4-30 by 2-10 cm, generally rather rigid, chartaceous to coriaceous, glabrous or more or less pilose on the midrib above and on all nerves beneath; base rounded to cuneate, slightly oblique; margin entire, in young plants often serrulate to dentate and with tufts of hair on the teeth; apex mostly more or less abruptly, up to c. 2 cm long, tapering to narrowly, acutely to bluntly acuminate; nerves rather prominent beneath, (7-)12-15(-20) pairs (angle 50-80 degrees), straight to slightly curved, sometimes abruptly arching close to the margin. Inflorescences axillary, spicate to subracemose, male ones sometimes narrowly paniculate, these up to c. 40 cm long, female ones 1-20(-32) cm, mostly slender and flexible, pendulous to ascending, sometimes rigid and erect; more or less hirsutely pubescent to glabrous. Flowers 3-7 mm long, female ones very rarely with a slightly concave receptacle. Calyx 1.5-5 mm high. Stamens glabrous, 1.5-5 mm long, free, rarely slightly connate at the base or adnate to the disk. Disk pilose, in the female flowers 3- or 6-lobed to subtruncate, c. 1 mm high; in the male flowers cup-shaped with sometimes a small ovarial rudiment, to subglobose, with or without a central canal, more or less 6-lobed, up to 1.5 mm high. Pistil pubescent, rarely glabrous. Infructescences (nearly) spicate, flexible to rigid, with many fruits; calyx c. 2.5-5 mm diam. with strongly reflexed lobes (asperum-type) to c. 1 cm diam., funnel-shaped, deeply 3-lobed (calophyllum-type). Fruits ovoid to subglobose, subacute, round or slightly trigonous in cross-section, 9-14 by 411 mm, glabrous; pyrene smooth to slightly rugose, rarely very faintly 6-ribbed; lids c. 2 mm thick. Seed 1 ; sterile cells nearly to entirely reduced. [from Flora Malesiana]

Ecology
Apparently common in primary and secondary forests on very different, dry to wet, sometimes marshy, soils, sometimes found in more open forests or savannahs, quite often found near the coast on rocky to sandy soils. Mainly occurring at low altitudes, up to c. 500 m, more rarely, specially in the Philippines, found at altitudes above 1000 m (up to 1800 m).

Uses
The wood is said to be moderately hard, sometimes hard to very hard, or rather soft; it is of little durability. The resin is locally used for fuel and lighting purposes and sometimes recorded as caulking material for canoes and for painting hats.

Distribution
Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea, Solomon Islands.

Local names
Bawean: Kaju pukel, kedu (kentu), popoah.
Borneo: Kedongdong, Pulot, Put.
Flores: enduing, kadjawanda, nangi (watu), neni.
Kangean: Kanang.
Moluccas: nakimbarawo, natimbarawo, nirihaka, wehaka, njiha puru, dammar djadjaruwa, damar itam.
New Guinea: ijako, mangkes, mengkes, manifen.
Sulawesi: damar djahat, damar reri, kenari jaki, solo, solo in tanah, solo kulo, solo lewo, solo ni tiei, solo rendai, damar-damar, prempang, damara, biolo, kanare.
Sumba: kahe, karitak ku kasih.
Sumbawa: hetji, kessi.
Philippines: alagatli, anagatli, ananggi, anunggi, malapilauai, nani-saliing, pacharingen, pagsaingan, pagsaingin, pagsahingin-maliit, pal(a)sahingen, panhinhin, patsaingin, pilauai bulog, sahing, saliang., Zamboanga: bulo.