Kopsia arborea Blume, Catalogus 13. (1823)
Species name meaning 'tree-like'.
Kopsia jasminiflora Pitard
Kopsia lancibracteolata Merr
Kopsia laxinervia Merr
Kopsia longiflora Merr
Kopsia officinalis Tsiang & P.T.Li
Kopsia pitardii Merr
Kopsia pruniformis Reichb.f. & Zoll. ex Bakh.f.
Kopsia scortechinii King & Gamble
It is a relatively short tree with oppositely arranged elliptic leaves with wavy margins.
A useful guide is to look out for the old leaves which will turn reddish or purple (almost
always present). The flowers are white with a faint yellow centre while the fruits is ovoid
in shape and dark purple-blue when ripe, without any projections.
Tree to 14 m tall, to 30 cm dbh. Bark gray;
inner bark pale brown. Branchlets glabrous or
sparsely puberulent when young, sparsely
lenticellate or not. Leaves: petiole 3-10 mm
long, glabrous; blade 4.5-30.5 x 1.4-12.0 cm,
1.9-5.7 times as long as wide, subcoriaceous to
coriaceous, elliptic, apex caudate to acuminate
with a blunt tip, base acute or cuneate, glabrous
above and beneath, midrib sunken to raised and
with a central groove above, secondary veins
9-18 pairs with 4-13 mm spacing, 60-65 degrees from
midrib, prominent above and beneath, clearly
distinguishable from tertiary venation above
and beneath, straight or ascending near margin,
tertiary venation prominent or flat above and
beneath, obscure or irregularly subperpendicular
to midrib and oblique to secondary veins,
intramarginal vein strongly looped.
Inflorescence dichasial, 4.8-15.3 cm long with
axes 2.0-12.5 cm long and branches 1.2-2.7
mm wide, glabrous to sparsely puberulent;
peduncle 0.7-8.1 cm long, 2.1-2.7 mm wide,
glabrous or puberulent in upper parts; pedicels
0-5 mm long, glabrous to densely puberulent,
subtending bracts persistent, bracts present on
pedicel. Sepals 1.8-6.3 x 0.6-1.9 mm, 1.0-3.7
times as long as wide, ovate, lanceolate or
oblong, apex obtuse to acute, ciliate, glabrous
to sparsely puberulent outside, glabrous or
puberulent on upper half inside. Corolla completely
white; tube 20.5-35.0 mm long, 1.6-2.2
mm wide, 1.3-2.7 times as long as lobes,
5.4-13.6 times as long as calyx, glabrous to
sparsely pubescent around stamens and slightly
beneath inside, glabrous or sparsely puberulent
at top of tube outside; lobes 7.0-21.5 x 3.4-6.5
mm wide, 1.6-4.4 times as long as wide, elliptic
or oblong, apex rounded to obtuse, ciliate or
ciliate only at lobe base, inside glabrous or
sparsely pubescent in upper quarter, outside
glabrous. Stamens inserted 18.0-32.3 mm from
corolla base which is 0.8-0.9 of corolla tube
length in the rehydrated flowers measured;
anthers 1.2-1.7 x 0.5-0.8 mm, 2.0-3.4 times as
long as wide, apex 0.1-1.4 mm from corolla
throat; filaments 0.8-1.2 mm long. Disk
0.7-2.1 mm long, 1.1-1.9 times as long as
ovaries, glabrous, oblong, hourglass-shaped, or
awl-shaped, apex shape variable and often
quite complex, ranging from simply acuminate
to rounded to horizontally V-shaped and flat on
top or horizontally V-shaped and retuse on top.
Ovaries 0.9-1.2 mm high, glabrous to sparsely
pubescent all over; style 18-25 mm long; style
head 0.8-1.1 mm long. Fruit oblique ellipsoid
or subglobose, blue-black, 14.0-42.4 x
5.5-15.5 x 8-22 mm, only one carpel developing
(see note), spur absent, glabrous.
[from Harvard Papers in Botany, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2004, pp. 89-142]
Grows in a wide range of forest types as an understory tree and at forest margins
on a wide range of soil types from sea level to 1500 m altitude.
A decoction of bark is used as an enema. The leaves and fruit are used to treat sore throat
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, southern China, Thailand, Vietnam, peninsular Malaysia, Borneo,
Sumatra, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, Philippines, Queensland.
China: Rui mu.
English: Penang Sloe.