Hydnocarpus sumatrana (Miq.) Koord., Exk. Fl. Java 2 (1912)

Latin for 'from Sumatra'.

Bergsmia sumatrana Miq.
Hydnocarpus curtisii var. sumatrana Bak.f.
Hydnocarpus hutchinsonii Merr.
Hydnocarpus pentagyna Sloot.
Ryparosa sumatrana Warb.

Upper canopy tree up to 48 m tall and 63 cm dbh. Stipules dropped early. Leaves alternate, simple, penni-veined, glabrous, base asymmetrical. Flowers ca. 15 mm diameter, green-white, placed in cymes. Fruits ca. 60 mm diameter, green-yellow-brown, berries/capsules.

Tree (7-)15-25(-50) m ; tips of branches ferrugineous-sericeous. Leaves oblong or subovate oblong, rarely lanceolate-oblong, +/- abrupt-acuminate, distinctly inequilateral at base, coriaceous to subcoriaceous, entire, shining, reddish-brown when dry, glabrous (sometimes very laxly pilose on midrib and nerves beneath), (13-)15-25(-33) by 5-9(-12) cm; midrib prominent on both sides, nerves little prominent or slightly impressed above, distinct beneath, veins densely reticulate and rather prominent on both sides; petiole 1-1.5(-2) cm. Stipules not seen, apparently very early caducous. Male flowers in 2-4-flowered cymes; peduncles 0.8-1.4 cm, rusty-pubescent. Pedicels rather slender, 1.5-2 cm, somewhat thickened at the apex, rusty velvety. Sepals greenish-white, ovate-oblong, ferrugineous-tomentose on both sides, 8-11 by 4-6 mm. Petals oblong, glabrous, 11-13 by 4-5 mm, involute, probably white in vivo, but intensively red-coloured when dry; scales linear-oblong, fleshy, ciliate, 7-10 by 1.1.5 mm. Filaments subulate, glabrous, 3-5 mm; anthers oblong, 4 mm. Rudiment of ovary pilose. Female flowers 1-2, c. 1.5-2.5 cm peduncled. Sepals slightly larger than in the 6 flowers, up to 16 by 6 mm, but petals similar to those in the d flowers. Filaments elongate-deltoid, obtuse, 2 mm, appressed to the ovary. Ovary ovoid, contracted at the apex, densely fulvous-pilose, distinctly sulcate lengthwise. Fruit subglobose to ovoid-globose, slightly attenuate and sulcate at the apex or apiculate, densely fulvous-tomentulose and provided with fine tubercles, 4-6(-8) cm across; pericarp thin, fragile. Seeds (10-)20-30(-45), irregularly compressed, 2 by 1.5 cm. [from Flora Malesiana]

In undisturbed mixed dipterocarp and sub-montane forests up to 1200 m altitude. Mostly on hillsides and ridges with sandy to clay soils, but also on limestone.

Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines, Celebes.

Local names
Borneo: Lemonuh, Ingleoh, Madansat, Nangka-nangka, Andara.
Indonesia: Kapayang, Mangkulang, Mentada, Tambau.
Java: Limus buntu.
Philippines: Bagarbas, Kamupang, Mangasaluka, Mansaloka, Mangabo, mangasalokag, Tioto, Sugalingayau.
Sulawesi: Wulosu.
Sumatra: Buntut kaju.